Un – A Paramara Temple Cosmopolis

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Un (ऊन) is a small village in the Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh. The village has more than a dozen temples, mostly Hindu except a few Jain. The village is now better known as Pavagiriji Digrambar Jain Siddha Kshetra, a famous Jain pilgrimage site. After the discovery of a few Jain images in the village, the Jain scholars in 1934 declared Un as the ancient Pavagiri as mentioned in the Nirvana Kand.1 The Nirvana Kand enumerates the nirvana sites of the Jain Tirathankaras. It tells that Suvaranbhadra (सुवरण भद्र) with the other three Jain munis attained nirvana at Pavagiri (पावागिरि) situated near river Chelna (चेलना). The Jain scholars identified the Chelna River with the Chirurh (चिरूढ़) river which is mentioned as the Chanderi River in government documents. However, this does not appear proper as there is no proper river flowing near the village also the Indore Gazetteer of 1908 does not mention any river. Whatever the reasons may be, Un was accepted as the ancient Pavagiri and the Jain community placed a request for take over of the village as their pilgrimage site. This request was granted in 1935 by Yashwant Rao Holkar II, the king of Indore State.2 The Jain community developed the village and provided many convenience facilities for pilgrims.

There is a legend associated with the name of the village. It tells that a king named Ballal swallowed a small snake by mistake when he was a child. The snake remained in his stomach and kept growing resulting in severe pain and fever. Finding no cure, the king decided to leave his life in Varanasi next to Ganga and he set out on his journey with his queen. On the way, they stayed in a jungle for a night. The queen overheard a discussion between the snake in the stomach and another snake that lived under a tree guarding a treasure. In the heat of discussion, both the snakes revealed the secret of how they could be killed. The queen learned the secret that the snake inside the stomach could be killed by drinking slaked limewater and the snake under the tree could be killed by pouring hot oil. The queen told this to the king in the morning. The king drank limewater and that killed the snake inside his stomach relieving him from pain. Then he poured hot oil in the hole killing the snake guarding a large treasure. After getting the treasure, the king vowed to build a hundred ponds, a hundred temples, and a hundred wells. However, unfortunate he was, he could only build ninety-nine of each. As one was missing in each, pond, temple, and well, the place was named Un (the deficient or one less).3

The first modern reference to Un is found in the 1908 Indore State Gazetteer which describes Un as an old town and headquarters of a thana with its only importance lying in the remains of a few old Jain temples of the 12th century CE. It does not describe any temple in any detail except that considerable damage was done to these temples by the contractor employed by Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar to build tanks. The contractor used these temples as a quarry to get ready material for his constructions.4 The first detailed account of the village and its temples appeared when R D Banerji paid a visit in 1919. He says the majority of the temples were in good condition with the exception of two or three that were partly demolished in order to provide rubble for road making by a contractor. However, these need very little in the shape of repairs. The report describes all the major temples in detail.5 The 1931 Indore State Gazetteer6 and later D R Patil7 largely follow the account provided by Banerji. Krishna Deva included the village in his erudite article on the Bhumija architecture. On the basis of the fragmented Udayatidya inscription in one temple at Un, Deva defines the contemporaneity of the Un temples with that of the Udayeshvara Temple at Udaipur.8 In 1978, Khare discusses Un in a seminar held on the Paramara art and temples, however, that paper does not offer any new insight or discovery.9 Rahman Ali discusses Un temples in his work on the Paramara art. Though he provides details of various temples, however, it does not improve upon the past information.10 The latest comprehensive study about Un and its temples is from, Swati Mandal Adhikari whose Ph.D. thesis was submitted at the University of Calcutta in 2007.11

Monuments – There are more than a dozen temples, Hindu and Jain, in the village, standing in various states of preservation. As per legend, the town was bestowed with 99 temples, 99 ponds, and 99 wells. The remains of various temples and water bodies strewn around the town suggest that it once possessed numerous such structures, however, not to the extent mentioned in the legend. Deva tells Un has eight Bhumija temples, essentially of the same plan and shikhara design as that of the Udayeshvara Temple, Udaipur. All of those are dedicated to Shiva and belong to panchabhuma stellate type, some with pancharatha in the plan and some saptaratha.12

Chaubara Dera No 1 Complex
Chaubara Dera No 1

Chaubara Dera No 1 – This east-facing temple is the largest temple in the town. The temple consists of a garbha-grha, antarala, and mandapa with three mukha-mandapas, one each in the north, south, and west. The vertical components are pitha, vedibandha, jangha, barandika, and shikhara following a saptaratha pattern. The pitha is buried in the ground. The vedibandha has five moldings, khura, kumbha, antarapatta, kalasa, another antarapatta, and kapotika. The kumbha molding is decorated with niches with diamond designs inside, and the kapotika molding is decorated with chaitya-arch motifs. The jangha is devoid of decoration and would probably have a large niche over its bhadra. The temple does not follow a true stellar plan as its bhadra portion is parallel to the principal axis of the garbha-grha. The shikhara has completely collapsed and is now replaced with a dome structure. Sometime before 1908, the garbha-grha was pulled down by a Muhammadan contractor, employed by then Maharaja of Indore, who used the material for rubbles in making a road.13

Northern mukha-mandapa
Stellar-plan garbha-grha
The main entrance in the east

mukha-mandapa ceiling
Bhara-vahakas
Mandapa doorway

The mukha-mandapa in the east has four full and four half pillars, the latter supported over the seats on the sides. The pillars are exquisitely decorated with various designs and motifs. Above the capital are placed bhara-vahakas depicted as a couple. Above the bhara-vahakas are placed cross-beams to support a ceiling. Niches are provided on either side of the entrance door. These niches are empty at present however were equipped with images originally. An image of Jain Tirthankara has been placed next to a pillar, however, it is a later addition as the temple is dedicated to a Hindu deity. The mandapa doorway in the east has five shakhas (bands). Dvarapalas, female paricharikas, etc., are placed over the base of the door jambs. The dvarapala figures are much mutilated beyond recognition. Ganesha is present over the lalata-bimba and Gaja-Lakshmi over the sur-lintel. Above the lintels is an architrave carrying nine niches. Shiva as Veenadhara occupies the central niche and in the rest of the eight niches are distributed Sapta-matrikas and Ganesha.

Mandapa interior

The mandapa inside has four central pillars supporting a dome ceiling above. The pillars are highly decorated. These are square at the base and turn circular above. The square base carries small-sized niches at the base. These niches are occupied by various deities. The top part of the square base carries large-sized niches occupied by apsaras shown in various postures. The circular shaft above the apsara figures has a total of six rows, the first five rows are decorated with images of various gods and goddesses and the last sixth row has images of secular themes. A few large-size standing Jain Tirthankara images have been placed inside the mandapa, all are later additions.

Antarala doorway

Garbha-grha doorway

The architrave above the antarala entrance has five niches occupied by Ganesha, Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu, and Saraswati. The garbha-grha doorway is composed of five shakhas. Similar to the mandapa doors, the architrave over the garbha-grha door has nine niches. Shive as Natesha occupies the central niche and the rest of the eight niches are occupied by Ashta-matrkas. The niches in the recessed space are topped by lions and elephants while the niches in the projections have a pair of birds below those. The lalata-bimba over the lintel has an image of Ganesha while the sur-lintel has an image of Lakshmi. The garbha-grha is plain inside except for its brackets. The main deity has been long lost. Though no foundation inscription has been found, however, a fragmentary inscription on the wall of antarala mentions Udayaditya-deva, which probably refers to the famous Paramara king Udayaditya (1070-1093 CE). As Udayaditya is also credited with the magnificent bhumija temple at Udaipur, it is very possible that he was also instrumental in the bhumija temples at Un. Therefore, this temple and many other temples at Un are usually assigned to the 11th-12th century CE.

Subsidiary Temple

In the northwest corner of the above temple stands another smaller temple. The presence of this temple led Krishna Deva to suggest that the temple complex was of panchayatana (quincunx) style.14 Later scholars Khare15, Ali16, etc. agree with Deva. Adhikari differs stating that the subsidiary temple is erected over a platform that is 100 cm higher than the central temple. If it was a panchayatana complex, the subsidiary temple should be over a lower or same-height platform but not on a higher platform. She also mentions that no remains have been found of the remaining three subsidiary temples. Thus, it appears that this so-called subsidiary temple was erected after the central temple.17 The temple faces east and is built over a high pitha (plinth) following pancharatha plan. It consists of a mukha-mandapa, antarala, and garbha-grha. The mukha-mandapa is approachable by a flight of steps, as the original was lost and thus reconstructed. The garbhagrha doorway is tri-shakha (thee bands) with dvarapalas at the base of the jambs. The lintel over the doorway is a recent addition, the original was carrying an image of Ganesha over the lalata-bimba.18 An architrave above the doorway lintel has nine niches. Similar to the doorways of the mukha-mandapa of the main temple, the nine niches of this architrave are occupied with Sapta-matrikas, Shiva-Vinadhara in the middle niches, and Ganesha in the last niche on the right. Bhadra niche in the south has an image of Brahma. Though the temple is dedicated to Shiva and general traditions suggest that the south bhadra niche is occupied by Andhakantaka image, however, here we have an image of Brahma. The shikhara is a restored structure and original elements such as surasenaka and sukanasa have been removed. Looking at the old images of the temple prior to restoration tells that suresenaka on three sides has large medallions occupied by Natesha images. Similarly, sukanasa also has images of Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu.19

Sarpa-bandha inscription

Inscriptions:

  1. Un Sarpabandha Inscription20 – This inscription was first noticed by V S Sukthankar in 1918-19. It is inscribed on the right wall of the antarala. Due to the imperfect nature of the stone, the inscription has suffered damage where small portions of the surface have peeled off here and there making letters wholly or partially unidentifiable. The language used is Sanskrit and it is written in the Nagari characters. The inscription on the whole is an alphabetical chart with some of the conjugational terminations. All the letters are engraved over the body of a serpent combined with a dagger-like object engraved over the body of a serpent. The pentagonal top of the dagger-like object with the upper part of serpentine loops is now lost. There are twenty-five squares formed by the coils of the snake. Twenty-five principal consonants belonging to five vargas are engraved within these twenty-five squares. The sloping limbs on the right side have sibilants and aspirate while the limbs on the left side have ya, ra, la, and va letters. The body between these two limbs has three visargas, upadhmaniya, jihvamuliya, and visarajaniya respectively from left to right. The tail of the snake has some conjugational terminations, which are now mutilated and beyond recognition. Near the hood of the serpent is a fish like object.
  2. A short inscription on a lateral wall of the antarala21 – reads, Udayaditya-devasya
  3. A short inscription on a lateral wall of the antarala22 – written in four lines, but nothing can be made out as all is obliterated. From the traces, however, it appears that it had some grammatical terminations.
Chaubara Dera No 2

Chaubara Dera No 2 – This temple faces north and is built on a high jagati, the latter is now buried underground. The temple consists of a garbhagrha, antarala, and mandapa with three mukha-mandapa, one each on north, east, and west. The vertical elevation consists pitha, vedibandha, jangha, barandika, and shikhara, the last two components have not survived. The vedibandha has regular moldings of khura, kumbha, antarapatta, kalasa, antarapatta, and kapotika. The height of the vedibandha is enhanced by inserting two additional moldings between khura and kumbha, one molding carries a frieze of elephant figures and another carries various human figures. Niches are provided over the kumbha and these are occupied by various divinities. The jangha follows pancha-ratha pattern with niches provided over all projections. The large niches over the bhadra are now empty but once would have been occupied by cult images. The rest of the niches over the jangha have images of apsaras, divinities, dancers, musicians, and other similar images. As the shikhara of the temple has not survived, it is difficult to assess if it was of bhumija type.

The mandapa is a square hall with eight pillars supporting a tiered ceiling of concentric circles of reducing diameter. The mukha-mandapa on the three sides of the mandapa are of kakshashana type with benches and half-pillars supporting the ceiling. All are equipped with staircases to allow entry into the mandapa. The side walls of these mukha-mandapas were provided with niches for images. The doorway is of tri-shakha (three bands) type. The shafts are decorated with floral designs. A Jina image occupies the lalata-bimba. The architrave above, uttaranga, has five niches occupied by female divinities.

The side walls of antarala have niches but now empty. The garbhagrha doorway is built in tri-shakha (three bands) pattern. The shafts are decorated with usual floral patterns. A Jina image occupies the lalata-bimba. An architrave above the lintel has five niches, each occupied by a Jina image. square inside. A pedestal, that once supported a cult image, is placed at its rear wall. No foundation inscription has been found. The presence of elephant and human-figure frieze on the vedibandha led Deva to suggest that the temple was built in the Chalukyan style of Kumarapala, and may be ascribed to the last phase of the 12th century CE.23

Mahakaleshvara Temple No 1

Various moldings of different components

Mahakaleshvar Temple No 1 – This temple is located near the above Chaubara Dera No 1. The temple faces east and is composed of a garbhagrha, antarala, and mandapa with transepts at lateral sides and a mukha-mandapa in the east. It is built over a high-rising jagati (platform). The vertical elevation of the temple consists of pitha, vedibandha, jangha, barandika, and shikhara.  The pitha (plinth) has multiple thin moldings sloping inward. The vedibandha has six moldings, khura, kumbha, antarapatta, kalasa, antarapatta, and kapotika. The kumbha molding is decorated with niches occupied by divine images. The jangha is stellar in plan except for its bhadra which is parallel to the principal axis. It follows saptaratha pattern where the karna-ratha is shared between the two adjacent sides. The jangha is devoid of niches except for a large niche provided over each bhadra section.

Shiva-Andhakantaka
Natesha

Chamunda

The shikhara is partially preserved. It is built in bhumija style with five tiers of kutastambhas, only three are preserved. The bhadra section continues as the main lata over the shikhara and around it are arranged six kutastambhas, three on either side. A large chaitya medallion is provided at the base of lata on three sides, except in the east where a sukanasika extends over the antarala. Images of Shiva as Natesha occupy the medallion in the south, west, and north. Bhadra niches have Shiva-Andhakantaka in the south, Shiva-Natesha in the west, and Chamunda in the south. Sukanasa in the front has two tiers decorated with images. The lower tier has images of Sapta-mtrikas, only four are present in the front. The side blocks of this lower panel are missing and these may have the remaining three matrikas and Ganesha most probably. The upper tier has an image of Shiva shown seated in yogasana-mudra.

Brahma
Vishnu

The mandapa has only survived with its base, the ceiling has long fallen. It is a square hall with four central pillars, the latter once supported the ceiling. Two projecting transepts are provided in the north and south. Only one transept has survived. It follows the kakshashana style with seats with sloping backrests. The rectangular antarala has niches on its lateral walls, Brahma occupies the south niche and Vishnu the north niche. The garbhagrha doorway is pancha-shakha (five bands) style. The base of jambs has dvarapalas accompanied by female paricharikas. Ganesha is present over the lalata-bimba. An architrave above the lintel has nine niches. Vinadhara-Shiva occupies the central niche, and the rest of the niches are occupied by Sapta-matrikas and Ganesha, the latter is in the rightmost niche. The garbhagrha is square inside and has niches on the northern and western walls.

Mahishasuramardini over surasenaka

Mahakaleshvara Temple No 2 – Scholars have reported this temple is situated on the banks of river Hathni24 (or Narayani25) in the east of Un, however, the present map does not show any river in the near vicinity of this temple. In fact, no significant river flows next or through to Un. The temple faces west and has only survived with its garbhagrha and antarala. A mandapa that once preceded the antarala has not survived. The temple is built in pancha-ratha style over a stellar plan. Except for the bhadra section, the rest of all projections are at an acute angle forming a circular stellar structure. The bhadra is parallel to the principal axis of the garbhagrha. The vertical elevation consists of pitha, vedibandha, jangha, barandika, and shikhara. The vedibandha has regular six moldings, khura, kumbha, antarapatta, kalasa, antarapatta, and kapotika. Niches are provided over the kumbha molding and these niches are occupied by various deities such as Ganesha, Chamunda, Maheshvari, etc.

Chamunda

Natesha

Shiva-Andhakantaka

Major niches are provided over bhadra, the rest of the jangha is devoid of sculptures. Bhadra niches carry Chamunda in the north, Natesha in the west, and Shiva-Andhakantaka in the south. The shikhara is heavily damaged however from its remains it is clear that it was bhumija type. Each bhadra of jangha is extended as the principal lata over the shikhara. The base of the lata is decorated with a large chaitya medallion, only two have survived, one carrying an image of Mahishasuramardini and another of Nataraja. Between the two adjacent lata are inserted five kutastambhas.

The garbhagrha doorway has also suffered considerably. It was built in pancha-shakha (five bands) mode. The ground level of the garbhagrha is considerably lower than that of the antarala and steps are provided to descend down. The garbhagrha is plain except for its ceiling made of concentric circles of reducing size and supported over brackets. A stone shelf has been provided on the south wall. The side walls of the antarala were provided with niches however these are empty at present.

Omkareshvara Temple

Omkareshvara Temple – The temple faces east and consists of a garbhagrha, antarala, and a mukha-mandapa, the latter two have not survived. The temple would have been constructed over a high-rising jagati as evident by its height from the ground. The mukha-mandapa would have been equipped with a flight of steps to reach the level of the temple. The garbhagrha is square inside and stellar outside. The vertical elevation was originally composed of pitha, jangha, barandika, and shikhara. However, the part starting with jangha did not survive and has been replaced with plain dressed masonry. The vedibandha has the usual moldings of khura, kumbha, antarapatta, kalasa, antarapatta, and kapotika. The kumbha molding is decorated with niches occupied with images of Shiva. The garbhagrha ceiling is made of concentric circles (kshipta-vitana) with reducing circumference as they go up. The ceiling is supported by brackets. Though the shikhara has not survived, however, as the temple has a stellar plan it would be safe to assume that its shikhara was of bhumija style as of other similar temples at Un.

Nilkantheshvara Temple

Nilkanstheshvara Temple – This west-facing temple has lost its mandapa and is standing with its garbha-grha with partially preserved shikhara. Like other temples at Un, this temple is also built over a high-rising jagati and follows a stellar plan. The mandapa was a large structure and had rows of pillars supporting a ceiling. It also had mukha-mandapa in the north and south allowing entry inside the mandapa. The main entrance was from the west through a mukha-mandapa. Only bases of a few pillars and a projection in the south have survived of this mandapa.

Chamunda
Natesha
Shiva-Andhakantaka

The vertical elevation of the temple is composed of pitha, vedibandha, jangha, barandika, and sikhara. The pitha is composed of multiple thin moldings arranged in a manner sloping inward. The vedibandha consists of various moldings, khura, kumbha, antarapatta, kalasa, antarapatta, and kapotika. The kumbha molding carries niches occupied by divinities. The jangha follows saptaratha style with karna-ratha being shared by adjacent sides. Large niches are provided over bhadra, Chamunda occupying the niche in the north, Shiva-Natesha in the west, and Shiva-Andhakantaka in the south. The bhadra continues as the main lata over the shikhara. The base of the lata is decorated with a large chaitya medallion occupied by Shiva-Nataraja. On either side of the bhadra, three kutastambhas are placed. However, as karna-ratha is shared between two adjacent sides, this results in five kutastambhas between two adjacent latas. There are a total of seven tiers of these kutastambhas, thus the shikhara is sapta-bhumi type.

The garbha-grha doorway is exquisitely carved and has sapta-shakhas (seven bands). Dvarapalas with female paricharika adorn the base of jambs. Shakhas are left plain instead of the usual decoration generally found over the shafts. Ganesha occupies the lalata-bimba over the lintel. An architrave above the lintel has nine niches. Vinadhara-Shiva occupies the central niche, and the rest of the niches are occupied by Sapta-matrikas and Ganesha, the latter is in the rightmost niche. The garbhagrha is square inside and has a Shiva linga inside. The ceiling is supported by brackets, the latter are adorned with sculptures. A stone slab is provided in the northern wall.

Hatkeshvara Temple

Hatkeshvara Temple – This temple has suffered much damage and with the accumulation of earth, the level of the garbhagrha has gone below the present ground level, therefore the temple is also known as Gupteshvara Temple. The temple faces west and consists of a garbhagrha and antarala. The garbhagrha doorway has three shakhas (bands). Ganesha is present over the lalata-bimba.

Ballaleshvara Temple

Ballaleshvara Temple – The temple faces east and consists of grabhagrha and antarala. The shikhara has long fallen and it has been reconstructed in a domical form. There was once a mandapa in front of the antarala. The mandapa was equipped with three mukha-mandapa attached to its three sides. The vertical elevation consists of pitha, vedibandha, jangha, barandika, and shikhara. The pitha is elevated in height using multiple moldings. The vedibandha has regular moldings of khura, kumbha, antarapatta, kalasa, antarapatta, and kapotika. Niches are provided over the kumbha moldings. These niches are filled with images of various divinities.

Chamunda

The jangha is pancha-ratha in plan. Niches are provided over the bhadra, and the rest of the ratha have images in standing postures. Two bhadra niches have survived carrying images of Chamunda and Natesha. The karna-ratha would have carried images of dikpalas however many are missing and a few have been put in the wrong places. The recesses between bhadras have kutastambhas. The garbhagrha doorway has pancha-shakha (five bands). At the base of the jambs are Shaiva dvarapalas. Ganesha occupies the lalata-bimba. Uttaranga above the lintel has five niches and four recesses. Vinadhara-Shiva occupies the central niche, and Sapta-matrikas with Ganesha are distributed in the remaining niches and recesses.

Inscriptions: Two fragmentary inscriptions are found over the outer wall of the garbhagrha to the right side door. The upper inscription is much defaced. It is written in the Nagari characters closely resembling the Paramara inscriptions. The second inscription is also much defaced, however, from its fragments two words are legible, Ballala and rajaputra. It appears that it refers to Ramachandra Ballala Bhaskute, a local chief who was in charge of the Nimar region in 1751 under the Peshwas. It appears that it was Ballala who rebuilt the shikhara of this temple and thus him being mentioned in the inscription.26


1 जैन, प्रेमचन्द (1960). श्री पावागिरि सिद्धक्षेत्र का इतिहास। श्री दिगम्बर जैन सिद्धक्षेत्र पावागिरि संरक्षिणी कमेटी। ऊन। pp. 5-6
2 जैन, प्रेमचन्द (1960). श्री पावागिरि सिद्धक्षेत्र का इतिहास। श्री दिगम्बर जैन सिद्धक्षेत्र पावागिरि संरक्षिणी कमेटी। ऊन। p. 8
3 Luard C E (1908). Indore State Gazetteer, vol. II – Texts and Tables. Government Printing Press. Calcutta. p. 332
4 Luard C E (1908). Indore State Gazetteer, vol. II – Texts and Tables. Government Printing Press. Calcutta. pp. 331-332
5 Archaeology, Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey of India, Western Circle, for the year ending 31st March 1919. pp. 61-64
6 Dhariwal, L C (1931). The Indore State Gazetteer. Holkar Government Press. Indore. pp. 68-73
7 Patil, D R (1952). The Cultural Heritage of Madhya Bharat. Department of Archaeology, Madhya Bharat. Gwalior. pp. 132-134
8 Deva, Krishna (1975). Bhumija Temples in Studies in Indian Temple Architecture (ed. Pramod Chandra). American Institute of Indian Studies. New Delhi. pp. 99-100
9 Khare, M D (1979). Un – An Important Centre of Paramara Art and Architecture in Art of the Paramaras of Malwa (ed. R K Sharma). Agam Kala Prakashan. New Delhi. pp. 47-49.
10 Ali, Rahman (2002). Temples of Madhya Pradesh – The Paramara Art. Sundeep Prakashan. New Delhi. ISBN 8175741201. pp. 35-45
11 Adhikari, Swati Mandal (2007). Un – A Village of Temples, Ph. D. thesis submitted at the University of Calcutta.
12 Deva, Krishna (1975). Bhumija Temples in Studies in Indian Temple Architecture (ed. Pramod Chandra). American Institute of Indian Studies. New Delhi. pp. 99-100
13 Archaeology, Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey of India, Western Circle, for the year ending 31st March 1919. p. 62
14 Deva, Krishna (1975). Bhumija Temples in Studies in Indian Temple Architecture (ed. Pramod Chandra). American Institute of Indian Studies. New Delhi. p. 100
15 Khare, M D (1979). Un – An Important Centre of Paramara Art and Architecture in Art of the Paramaras of Malwa (ed. R K Sharma). Agam Kala Prakashan. New Delhi. p. 48
16 Ali, Rahman (2002). Temples of Madhya Pradesh – The Paramara Art. Sundeep Prakashan. New Delhi. ISBN 8175741201. p. 36
17 Adhikari, Swati Mandal (2007). Un – A Village of Temples, Ph. D. thesis submitted at the University of Calcutta. pp. 41-42
18 Adhikari, Swati Mandal (2007). Un – A Village of Temples, Ph. D. thesis submitted at the University of Calcutta. p. 65
19 Adhikari, Swati Mandal (2007). Un – A Village of Temples, Ph. D. thesis submitted at the University of Calcutta. p. 65
20 Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, vol. VII, part 2 – Inscriptions of the Paramaras, Chandellas, Kachchapaghatas and Two Minor Dynasties. p. 89
21 Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, vol. VII, part 2 – Inscriptions of the Paramaras, Chandellas, Kachchapaghatas and Two Minor Dynasties. p. 89
22 Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, vol. VII, part 2 – Inscriptions of the Paramaras, Chandellas, Kachchapaghatas and Two Minor Dynasties. p. 89
23 Ali, Rahman (2002). Temples of Madhya Pradesh – The Paramara Art. Sundeep Prakashan. New Delhi. ISBN 8175741201. p. 39
24 Adhikari, Swati Mandal (2007). Un – A Village of Temples, Ph. D. thesis submitted at the University of Calcutta. p. 44
25 Ali, Rahman (2002). Temples of Madhya Pradesh – The Paramara Art. Sundeep Prakashan. New Delhi. ISBN 8175741201. p. 40
26 Adhikari, Swati Mandal (2007). Un – A Village of Temples, Ph. D. thesis submitted at the University of Calcutta. p. 77

Acknowledgment: Some of the photos above are in CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain from the collection released by the Tapesh Yadav Foundation for Indian Heritage.