Omkareshwar – A Shapeless Manifestation of the Non-Manifest

5
1709

Omkareshwar or Mandhata is a riverine island on river Narmada in the Khandwa district of Madhya Pradesh. The island is situated between river Narmada and its stream known as Kaveri. The island is 4 km long and covers a 2.6 m2 area. The island is one of the most sacred Hindu places because the Omkareshvara linga is one of the twelve jyotirlingas of India. Traditional legends associate the island with legendary king Mandhata and Mountain Vindhya. A legend tells Mountain Vindhya did a severe penance to please Lord Shiva and the latter granted a boon to him. At the request of the other gods and sages, Lord Shiva stayed on the island in the form of a linga called Omkareshwar. Another legend states King Mandhata, lending his name to the hill and the island, carried out penance here until Lord Shiva appeared as a jyotirlinga. Mandhata is attributed to have two jyotirlingas sometimes, one is Amareshvara and another Omkareshvara. However, the fact is that Amaraeshvara was the ancient site where the original jyotirlinga was placed and Omkareshvara came later when the island gained prominence. Very soon, it replaced the sanctity of Amareshvara and started being recognized as a jyotirlinga. Pargiter identifies Mandhata with the ancient Mahishmati however this identification became untenable after excavations at Maheshwar as the latter was identified with ancient Mahishmati.1 From a historical perspective, Omkareshwar gained prominence during the Paramaras and they ruled here for little more than 200 years. The earliest Paramara record at Mandhata belongs to the Paramara king Jayasimha I (1055-1070 CE) dating to his first regnal year. This record is the earliest reference that mentions Amareshvara linga. The next lithic record at Mandata also belongs to the reign of Jayasimha I and tells the area had come under the Pashupata influence and various teachers of this clan were residing there. Though the inscriptions do not mention Amareshvara however as these are attached to the ardha-mandapa of the present Amareshvara temple, it is very probable that these belong to the old temple that once stood here. The importance of the inscription lies in the enumeration of the famous five lingas, Amareshvar, Omkara, Avimukta (Varanasi), Kedara, and Mahakala (Ujjain). This is the first epigraphical reference to Omkara linga. For the next 150+ years, we do not get any epigraphical evidence in Mandhata as the next available epigraph is dated 1225 CE and belongs to the Paramara king Devapala. The last Paramara record found at Mandhata is dated 1274 CE and belongs to the Paramara king Jayavarman II (1255-1274 CE). The Paramara dynasty did not survive long after Jayavarman II and was completely routed in 1305 by the army of Alauddin Khalji. The southern bank of the town where once stood the Amareshvara Temple was destroyed during these Muslim raids and it was deserted and overgrown with jungle. However, the island continues its religious significance, and after being included in the list of twelve jyotirlingas, its cultural and religious value was further enhanced. The southern bank was later restituted towards the close of the eighteenth century CE by the Peshwas when they reconstructed the Amareshvara temple utilizing the fallen debris and other fragments belonging to different temples.

Siddhanatha Temple, taken by Henry Cousens between 1892 and 1894 | British Library
hotograph of sculptured pillars in the porch of the Siddhanath Temple at Mandhata, taken by Henry Cousens around 1892-94 | British Library
Photograph of a sculpture of an elephant, said to have come from Mandhata, now in the Nagpur Museum, taken by Joseph David Beglar in the 1870s | British Library

The first modern reference to the town is found in a letter written in 1822 by Captain Douglas to a resident of Indore. In the letter, the author mentions an incident of a religious sacrifice carried out at Bir-Kali cliff in Mandhata. An excerpt of this letter was reproduced by James Forsyth. The Mandhata island then belonged to the Scindia state. Forsyth tells that it was probably the last episode of the practice as after that incident the practice was abolished by the British Government in 1824. The captain tried his best to dissuade the person from such an act however it all went in vain. The excerpts from the letter go, “The priestess tendered to him some ardent spirit in the nut shell, first making her son drink some from his hand, to obviate all suspicion of its being drugged. A little was poured in libation on the idol. She hinted to him to deliver to her the silver rings he wore. In doing so he gave a proof of singular collectedness. One of the first he took off he concealed in his mouth till he had presented to her all the rest, when, searching among the surrounding countenances, he pointed to a man to whom he ordered this ring to be given. It was a person who had accompanied him from Oojein. An eagerness was now evinced by several to submit bracelets and even betel-nuts to his sacred touch. He composedly placed such in his mouth and returned them. The priestess at last presented him with a paan leaf, and he left the spot with a firm step, amidst the plaudits of the crowd. During the latter half of his ascent he was much concealed from view by shrubs. At length he appeared to the aching sight, and stood in a bold and erect posture upon the fatal eminence. Some short time he passed in agitated motions on the stone ledge, tossing now and then his arms aloft as if employed invocation. At length he ceased; and, in slow motions with both his hands, made farewell salutations to the assembled multitude. This done, he whirled down the coconut, mirror, knife, and lime, which he had continued to hold; and stepping back was lost to view for a moment – a pause that caused the head to swim, the heart to sink, and the flesh to creep. The next second he burst upon our agonized sight in a most manful leap, descending feet foremost with terrific rapidity, till, in mid career, a projecting rock reversed his position, and caused headlong fall. Instant death followed this descent of ninety feet, and terminated the existence of this youth, whose strength of faith and fortitude would have adorned the noblest cause, and must command admiration when feelings of horror have subsided.”2

Photograph of the mandapa and tower of the Omkareshvara Temple taken by Henry Cousens around 1892-94 | British Library
Photograph of the carved pillars inside the Omkareshvara Temple taken by Henry Cousens around 1892-94 | British Library

In 1823, a brief description of the town appears in the memoirs of John Malcolm where it is spelled Mundatta. He mentions it was a small town situated on the south side of Nerbudda and consisting of about a hundred houses. The island was formerly fortified but had only survived with its ruins of a few gateways and old temples all covered with jungle. He also mentions the practice of devotees throwing themselves from Bheercallah cliff during the feast of the Kartik month.3 In 1870, James Forsyth wrote a description of Mandhata island for the Gazetteer of the Central Provinces. Forsyth would have visited the town during his explorations in 1864-65 and the article would have been written using his memory and notes. He tells the island was remarkable as containing numerous temples, ancient and new, including the two jyotirlingas, Omkareshwar and Amareshwar. The island covers an area of about five-sixths of a square mile. The river between the island and the town in the south is deep and full of alligators and large fish. Narmada-khand, a part of Skanda Purana, mentions the island was earlier known as Baidurya (or Vaidurya) Parvat, and its name was changed to Omkar after a boon from Shiva to Raja Mandhatri, the seventeenth king of the Solar Race (Surya Vamsha) who performed a great sacrifice (yajna) here. Forsyth tells the Amareshwar shrine was all deserted and the area overgrown with jungles. The Peshwa’s tried hard to find the original linga, however, failed. Therefore they reconstructed the temple utilizing materials from other temple ruins. Later, while digging earth for bricks, the original linga was found and Rao Daulat Singh, the last king of Mandhata, built a shrine over that linga. However, its name and honor were already gone and many pilgrims do not pay a visit to this shrine. The king of Mandhata is the hereditary custodian of all the temples and he is a Bhilala, claiming descent from a Chauhan Rajput named Bharat Singh, who is stated to have taken the town from a Bhil chief in 1165 CE. During the same time, there was a single priest, named Daryao Nath, at Omkar and pilgrims could not visit for fear of a terrible god, Kal-Bhairava, and his consort Kali who regularly fed on human flesh. By his austerities, Daryao Nath shut up these gods in a subterranean cave appeasing them that in the future they will receive human sacrifice at regular intervals. And therefore, devotees flung themselves from Birkhala Rock. The family of Daryao Nath still holds the priesthood at the temple.4

Photograph of the River Narmada at Mandhata taken by Henry Cousens between 1892-94 | British Library
Photograph of the ghats and of the Omkareshvara temple, taken by Henry Cousens between 1892-94 | British Library
Photograph taken by Henry Cousens between 1892 and 1894 showing the ghat and the Omkareshvara temple | British Library

An article by Tullu in 1876 informs on the Puranic origin of Omkareswar. Tullu informs the story has been narrated in chapter forty-seven of the Shiva Purana. Once Narada visited the Vindhya mountain, and knowing that Vindhya takes pride in his belief that he has everything, Narada breathed heavily. Vindhya asked the reason and Narada replied that he might have everything however he is not as high as Meru and also does not hold a place among the gods. Listening to this, Vindhya resorted to the island and started his tough tapasya to Shiva. Shive, being pleased with Vindhya, asked for a boon and the latter asked to allow him an increase in his bulk as per his desires. Shiva granted the boon and stayed on the island at the request of the gods and sages.5 Mandhata started appearing in various travel and guidebooks designed for European travelers desirous of exploring India.6 The content of these guidebooks was primarily borrowed from previous accounts, specifically that of Forsyth. Henry Cousens visited Mandhata in 1892 telling the town was built partly upon the south bank of Narmada and partly upon an island in the river and it was supposed to be the most important place from an archaeological point of view in the Central Provinces being famous as one of the twelve jyotirlingas in India. He discovered a new set of copper-plate and sent its impression to Dr. Hultzsch for decipherment, the latter sent that to Dr. Keilhorn. Keilhorn tells the grant was dated 1055-56 CE and belongs to a Paramara king.7

Photograph of an ancient gateway on the hill from Mandhata taken by Henry Cousens between 1892 and 1894 | British Library

Cousens provides a detailed description of the antiquity of the town in a report a year later, in 1894. He tells the linga inside the temple of Omkareshwar was not a free-standing linga but a shapeless knoll of the original rock over which the temple was raised. This temple was not of much interest from an archeological point of view, rather the ruins on top of the hill above the town were. Among them, the most interesting structure was the Siddhesvara Temple. The temple was built on a plinth, the facade of which was covered all around with friezes of elephants in various positions. Two such friezes had been moved to the Nagpur Museum. The central shrine was supported by porticos in all four cardinal directions, allowing entry into the shrine from four entrances. Each porch is supported by twelve pillars and two pilasters. The shikhara above the shine had been lost and a dome built of chunam has replaced its position. Among the other remains over the hill, one bracketed doorway was of interest. Another temple of stellar plan with a very large linga inside was also of interest. Looking at the remains of various temples belonging to different faints and religions, Cousens opines that there was an extensive settlement over the hilltop. A short distance from Mandhata, in the village of Panthia, was a small ruined old temple containing a number of images of Vishnu, all standing figures. As the attributes in the four hands of Vishnu differ in each image, Cousens tells the temple was dedicated to the twenty-four forms of Vishnu. A few images have labels inscribed over their pedestals, the following nine were legible, Narayana, Madhava, Vishnu, Sridhara, Padmanabha, Vasudeva, Purushottama, Adhokshaja, and Upendra. Cousens reported seventeen such images in the temple and a small image of Varaha whose back was covered with various deities. A short distance from the village, lying full length upon the ground, was an image of Mahakali, split into four separate stones.8 Conservation works at Mandhata were only taken after 1903 when the charge of the Central Provinces came to Henry Cousens. He mentions certain proposals were made for the repairs to, and finishing off, the roof of the Siddhesvara Temple but those were not satisfactory and would require a visit from him to settle the matter on the spot.9

Photograph of the Omkar Temple taken by Deen Dayal in the 1880s, from the Curzon Collection: ‘Views of places proposed to be visited by Their Excellencies Lord & Lady Curzon during Autumn Tour 1902’ | British Library

In 1906, the Central Provinces region was shifted from the Western circle to the Eastern circle of the Archaeological Department. The conservation work at Siddhesvara Temple was completed by 1907 except for a few leftovers for which a new estimate was made and presented by Longhurst.10 T Bloch of the Eastern Circle visited Mandhata in 1908 and reported the Chaubis Avatar ka Mandir has nine inscribed images of Vishnu. Cousens had earlier reported that the temple had seventeen different images of Vishnu, nine inscribed. Bloch only mentions the nine inscribed images but not others as a later report from Blakinston mentions nineteen such images therefore it is clear that the images were not stolen and were in situ as later as 1912. Bloch, however, reported the other images such as of Varaha and Lakshmi-Narayana as also reported by Cousens in his report. He mentions a proposal to remove these images, to a place somewhere safe, has been given up due to objections from the locals. Bloch tells no more repairs were needed for the Siddhesvara temple as it has been well-repaired some years ago, the only thing remaining was to collect all the scattered images and fragments and keep those somewhere so that their carved surface is visible. Two copper plates that were found in the past at Mandhata were said to be deposited in the Nagpur Museum.11 The 1912 report from J F Blakinston mentions the remains of Siddhesvara Temple were in good condition and all the images and fragments were collected and placed around the temple with a compound wall constructed. The Chaubis Avatar temple was dilapidated, and Blakiston recommended putting the temple in order and including that in the list of protected monuments. He mentions seeing nineteen images out of the required twenty-four, however, whether he included the two images, of Lakshmi-Narayana and Anantasayana, in his count is not very clear. If he had included those two images in his count, then it is clear that he saw the same seventeen images as reported by Cousens as the latter did not include the said two images in his count.12

Omkareswar was included in various studies dedicated to temples of Madhya Pradesh and the Malwa region. However, very few dedicatedly studied the place, its history, and its temples. A thesis by Emilie CRÉMIN13 discussed the geographical and cultural aspects of the town however does not touch upon the history of the town and its temples. Jürgen Nass14 traces the history and origins of Mandhata in his detailed article however he does not touch upon its temples and architecture. Ali15 included a few of these temples in his compendium on the Paramara art however the description is very brief and does not do justice to the site as it only talks about the bhumija style temples but not all.

Siddhanatha Temple

Siddhanatha Temple – Though now standing without its shikhara, roofs, and other components, this temple falls under the unique category of sarvatobhadra temples as the garbha-grha of the temple is open to its four cardinal directions. Each entrance is preceded by a pillared antarala and a sabha-mandapa (porch). The sabha-mandapa on each side is supported by fourteen pillars, each about fourteen feet high. These pillars have bhara-vahakas on the top to support beams. While the rediscovery of the temple, there was a dome-like shikhara over the garbha-grha, probably a construction during the Peshwa period. That dome has been dismantled during the conservation activities. The conservation work on the temple was started by Henry Cousens sometime in 1903 and was largely completed by 1907 except for a few minor works.

The temple is built over a ten feet high plinth with staircases provided on all four sides. The facade of the plinth is decorated with large friezes of elephants. These friezes either have two elephants facing each other in a combative mood or a single elephant with its foot resting over a prostrate human figure. In one frieze, a whole army is depicted with a large elephant on one end being led by a series of horse riders and followed by cavalry. Forsyth tells Raja of Mandhata has also removed a number of these friezes to build into his new palace, after getting a mason to chisel them down to a manageable size.16 The only two left all perfect had been moved to the Nagpur Museum and installed at its entrance.

 

The garbha-grha doorways on all four sides are exquisitely carved and decorated. Not all the doorways have survived with full details however looking at the remains, it seems probable that all the doorways were decorated with similar elements and iconography. An image of Lakulisha is present over the lalata-bimba while Shiva with ashta-dikpalas occupy the architrave above the lintels. The doorway jambs have Shaiva dvarapalas with female and male attendants.

Gouri Somantha Temple

Gouri Somanath Temple – The present building is a reconstruction over an old temple site utilizing the material from the original edifice as well as from the neighborhood. The legend goes that earlier the massive linga inside this shrine was white in color. The Muslim general who destroyed Mandhata was told that the linga had the property of displaying to the curious a reflection of the subject into which their souls should pass at their next metempsychosis. Desiring of inquiring about his fate, the Muslim general looked into the lings and saw a pig in his reflection. Angered, he threw the linga into the fire, and since then the linga became black in color.17 The garbha-grha doorway is an elaborate pancha-shakha (five bands) structure with its base carved with large size dvarapalas and attendant figures. The lintel and architrave above are devoid of images.

Vaishnavi
Sarasvati
Maheshvari (?)

The temple faces east and its vimana is built over a sapta-ratha (seven projections) that continues on its shikhara also. The vedibandha is composed of the usual molding of khura, khara, kumbha, etc. The jangha has two tiers, with niches only provided on its bhadra. Ganesha is present in the lower tier kapili niche in the south, the upper tier does not carry any niche.  The lower tier bhadra niche has Vaishnavi while the upper tier niche has Indra (?). The lower tier bhadra niche in the west has Parvati (?), and the upper tier niche has Shiva. The northern side of the vimana has more images than the other sides and this abnormality may be due to the fitting of images during the reconstruction phase. The lower tier bhadra niche in the north has Sarasvati while the upper tier niche has Brahma (?) though he does not have three heads. The karna and pratiratha in the west have some Shaiva images on their upper tiers. The lower tier kapili niche in the north has Maheshvari (?) while the upper tier does not have any niche. Looking at the present arrangement of images, it appears that the south side was dedicated to Vishnu, the west to Shiva, and the north to Brahma. As the temple has been largely reconstructed therefore the original distribution of images cannot be ascertained.

Chaubis Avatar Temple

Chaubis Avatar Temple – This temple is located on the northern bank of the Kaveri River. Forsyth mentions seventeen images of Vishnu depicting different arrangements of his four attributes, gada (club), chakra (discus), padma (lotus), and shankha (conch), in his different hands were present inside the temple during his visit. In 1912, Blakiston also reports seeing nineteen images inside the temple, he probably added two additional images that Forsyth did not consider related to the group of twenty-four. Blakiston mentions the temple was in much-dilapidated condition and the removal of those images to a safer place. However, an earlier attempt by T Bloch to remove these images to a safer place was stalled due to opposition from the locals. These images are no more in the temple and I am not aware of their present location, I hope these were removed to some museum if not stolen.

Mamaleshwar Complex

Shiva-Andhakantka

Mamaleshwar (Amareshwar) Temple – This temple is largely reconstructed in the Peshwa period. The temple consists of a garbha-grha, an antarala, and a mandapa open on three sides followed by mukha-mandapas on all three sides. The mandapa is supported by forty pillars however it is a hugely reconstructed except for the central original six pillars. The vimana is pancha-ratha in the plan. The shikhara has lost its original shape and presently follows a latina pattern. The vedibandha has the usual molding of khura, kumbha, kalasa, etc. The north side of the vimana is fairly preserved and depicts its original structure. A niche is provided in the bhadra and carries an image of Shiva-Andhakantka. The rest of the rathas are plain and devoid of sculptures. Based upon the inscriptions over the temple, it can be safely dated to the early decades of the eleventh century CE.

Chand-Suraj Dwar
Chamunda
Mahishasuramardini
Ganesha

Chand-Suraj Dwar – This gate is part of the fortification over the Mandhata island sometime during the late Paramara period. Various images are embedded into the structure, interesting one is of Chamunda who is shown with twenty arms and a faint outline of a scorpion in her stomach. In the niches on the lateral walls are Mahishasuramardini and Ganesha, the protective deities of the fort.

Inscriptions: A few important copper-plate grants have been discovered at Mandhata and published. Additionally, a few short inscriptions have also been reported from the town.

  1. Mandhata Plates of Jayasimha of Dhara18 – dated in the Vikrama Samvata 1112, equivalent to 1055 CE – This copper-plate grant was discovered by Henry Cousens and sent to Keilhorn for deciphering. The grant mentions the donation of the village of Bhima, located in the Makuta-42 in the Purnapathaka mandala, to the Brahmans at the holy Amareshvara for food and other purposes.  The grant was made by the Paramara king Jayasimhadeva (Jayasimha I), the successor of Bhojadeva (Bhoja). Bhojadeva was the son and successor of Sindhurajadeva and the latter succeeded Vakpatirajadeva (Vakpati Munja).
  2. Inscriptions over ardha-mandapa of Amareshvar Temple19 – dated Vikrama Samvat 1120, equivalent to 1063 CE – Several Sanskrit shlokas engraved over the wall of the ardha-mandapa of Amareshvara temple were copied in 1938. The northern wall had three shlokas, one in praise of the river Narmada, a well-known Shiva-Mahima-stotra, and a single verse in praise of Shiva and Parvati. The main record on the southern wall contains the text of the Halayudha-stotra. This stotra is written in 56 lines, in Nagari script and Sanskrit language.  The record was set up by two Pashupata teachers, Bhattaraka sri-Bhavasamudra, the disciple of Bhattaraka sri-Bhavavalmika, and Pandita Bhavavirinchi. The said teachers were living in the Someshvaradeva monastery in the city of Bhoja. The record was written by Pandita Gandhadhvaja of the Chapala-gotra, disciple of Vivekarasi, the latter was a disciple of Paramabhattaraka sri-Supujitarasi. The record is dated, and though a number is missing it can be safely restored to the year 1120 of the Vikrama Samvata. The records on the northern wall also carry the same date and appear written by the same person.
  3. Mandhata Plates of Devapala20 – dated in the Vikrama Samvata 1282, equivalent to  1225 CE – This plate was found in 1905 near the Siddhanatha temple. It was discovered enclosed in a chest made of two stones. This was deposited in the Nagpur Museum. It records a grant of land by the Paramara king Devapala of Malva. Genealogy of the king is provided as Bhojadeva, Udayaditya, Naravarman, Yasovarman, Ajayavarman, Vindhyavarman (mentioned he was eager to extirpate Gurjaras), Subhatavarman (mentioned as a forest-fire to Gurajara towns), Arjunavarman (his battle with Jayasimha is mentioned where the latter took a flight), Harishchandra, and Devapala. Devapala, while staying at Mahishmati, on the occasion of a lunar eclipse, after bathing in the Reva (Narmada) and worshipping Shiva in the neighborhood of a Daityasoodna (Vishnu) granted the village of Satajuna.
  4. Inscription on a small brass simhasana21 – dates Vikrama Samvat 1247, equivalent to 1247 CE – the inscription is dedicated to a deity who probably was sitting on the throne, no image of the deity has been recovered. The inscription belongs to the reign of the Paramara king Vindhyavarman.
  5. Mandhata Plates of Jayavarman II22 – dated in the Vikrama Samvat 1317, equivalent to 1261 CE – these plates were found some time in 1904 in the village of Godarpura opposite Mandhata island. These are deposited in the Nagpur Museum. It records an order by the Paramara king Jayavarman II of Malva while staying at Mandapadurga, to instruct Pratihara Gangadeva to donate the village of Vadauda to three Brahmanas. Pratihara Gangadeva, after bathing at the confluence of Reva (Narmada) and Kapila, at Amareshvara-kshetra on the southern bank of Reva, and worshipping the holy Amareshvara granted the village dividing it into six shares. The genealogy of the king is provided from Bhoja to Devapala as in the upper grant. Devapala was succeeded by his son Jaitugideva and the latter by his younger brother Jayavarman II.
  6. Mandhata Plates of Paramara Jayasimha-Jayavarman23 – dated in Vikrama Samvat 1331, equivalent to 1274 CE – This copper-plate grant came into the notice of the then Archaeological Department in 1939, and it was in possession of Rao Saheb Sobhag Singhji, the then Rao of Mandhata. The grant was said to be discovered in 1927 at Mandhata when some people were clearing the ground near the KashiVisveshvara Temple. The object of the plates is to record a grant of land made by Sadhanika Anayasimhadeva while he was staying at Mandapa-durga, with the permission of the Paramara king Jayavarman alias Jayasimha, described as the lord of Dhara, after having worshipped the husband of Parvati, i.e. Shiva. Ayanasimhadeva, son of Salakhana, together with his four sons, Kamalasimha, Dharasimha, Jaitrasimha, and Padmasimha, granted the four villages, Kumbhadauda-grama and Valauda in Vardhanapura-pratijagaranaka, Vagadhi-grama in Saptasitipratijagaranaka, and Natiya-grama in Nagadaha-praijagaranaka, in favor of a number of Brahmans residing in the Brahmapuri at Mandhata. Various religious edifices are attributed to Ayanasimha, including a temple for Shiva and a tank at Devapalapura, a temple for Ambika at Sakapura, and a temple for Jambukeshvara Shiva in the vicinity of the Onkara (Omkareshvara) and a tank near that temple. He also constructed a tank at Mandapa-durga and granted a township in favor of Brahmans. The township was surrounded by a wall, a gate, a big shrine, sixteen temples endowed with golden jars, and a pond. The grant invokes various deities at the start, including Onkara who is identical to Pashupati or Shiva and has his temple on the bank of the Reva (Narmada) near the junction of it with Kaveri. This is followed by a mythical genealogy of the Paramaras, starting with Brahma followed by Vashishtha, one of the Saptarishi created from the mind of Brahma. During the battle between Vashishtha and Vishvamitra, the former created a hero named Paramara from his firepit. He started the Paramara dynasty and followed by Kamandaludhara, Dhumaraja, Devasimhapala, Kanakasimha, Sriharsha, Jagadedeva, Sthirakaya, Vosari, Virasimha. These all kings are more or less an imaginary fabrication as mentioned by D C Sircar. The historical genealogy starts with Vakpatiraja, his grandson Siyaka, Munja, his brother Sindhuraja, Bhoja, Jayasimha, Udayaditya, his son Naravarman, Yashovarman, his son Ajayavarman, Vindhyavarman, Subhatavarman, his son Arjunavarman, Devapala, his son Jaitugi, his younger brother Jayavarman alias Jayasimha, the issuer of this grant.

1 Pargiter, F E (1904). The Markandeya Purana. The Asiatic Society. Calcutta. pp. 333-334
2 Forsyth, James (1872). The Highlands of Central India. Chapman & Hall. London. pp. 174-175
3 Malcolm, John (1823). Memoir of Central India vol. II. Kingsbury. London. pp. 504-505
4 Grant, Charles (ed.) (1870). The Gazetteer of the Central Provinces of India. Education Society’s Press. Nagpur. pp. 257-265
5 Tullu, Ravaji Vasudeva (1876). Omkara Mandhata published in the Indian Antiquary vol. V. pp. 53-55
6 Caine, William Sproston (1891). Picturesque India – A Handbook for European Travellers.  George Routledge and Sons Limited. London. p. 39) | 1892. Handbook for Travellers in Indian and Ceylon. John Murray. London. p. 79-80
7 Archaeology, Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey of Western India for the Months of May 1892 to April 1893. p. 3
8 Archaeology, Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey of Western India for the Months of May 1893 to April 1894. pp. 3-4
9 Archaeology, Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey of Western India for the year ending 30th June 1903. p. 7
10 Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey, Eastern Circle, for 1906-1907. p. 8
11 Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey, Eastern Circle, for 1907-1908. pp. 27-28
12 Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey, Eastern Circle, for 1907-1908. pp. 41-42
13 CRÉMIN, Emile (2005). Omkareshwar, une ville sainte de la Narmada en cours de transformation, Master’s thesis, University of Paris.
14 Nass, Jürgen (2013). Omkaresvar-Mandhata – Tracing the Forgotten History of a Popular Place published in Berling Indological Studies, vol. 21.
15 Ali, Rahman (2002). Temples of Madhya Pradesh – The Paramara Art. Sundeep Prakashan. New Delhi. ISBN 8175741201. pp. 47-52
16 Grant, Charles (ed.) (1870). The Gazetteer of the Central Provinces of India. Education Society’s Press. Nagpur. p. 260
17 Grant, Charles (ed.) (1870). The Gazetteer of the Central Provinces of India. Education Society’s Press. Nagpur. p. 261
18 Epigraphia Indica Vol. III. pp. 46-50
19 Epigraphia Indica vol XXV. pp. 183-186
20 Epigraphia Indica vol. IX. pp. 103-117
21 Indian Archaeology Review 1973-74. p. 51
22 Epigraphia Indica vol. IX. pp. 117-123
23 Epigraphia Indica vol. XXXII. pp. 139-156

Acknowledgment: Some of the photos above are in CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain from the collection released by the Tapesh Yadav Foundation for Indian Heritage. Some of the photos above are in CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain from the collection released by Tapesh Yadav Foundation for Indian Heritage.

5 COMMENTS

    • Yes Dhananjay, you are quite right, I did not give ample time to Omkareshvar which it deserved. I will plan to visit this place again in future and will then document all the monuments.

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