Ambajogai is a municipality in the Beed district of Maharashtra state. The town is famous for the samadhi (mausoleum) of Mukundaraj, one of the earliest Marathi poets. The town was known as Amba or Ambe during the medieval period and its Sanktitized name was Amrapura as evident from the Sakaleshvara inscription. The Yogeshvari temple inscription eulogizes the city telling it was an ornament on the earth, comprised of many districts, and was adorned with many gardens. The town was an exquisite one, its beauty being enhanced by numerous buildings. It was surrounded by a loft rampart wall and a moat and shone with enormous prosperity. It was beautified by tastefully decorated mansions. Here were situated the temples known as Kedareshvara, Ambareshvara, Manikyeshvara, and Sakaleshvara adorned with glittering gems, little tinkling bells, toranas, and flags fluttering on their tops. They were crowded by a multitude of devotees and penance-observes. There was also a sky-scrapping temple dedicated to Ganesha. Its crossways were incessantly resorted to by multitudes of travelers fatigued by the journey. The courtyards of the houses were slightly sprinkled with saffron water and houses were beautified with decorative designs in various colors formed of rows of pearls and rubies.
Ambajogai was part of the Marathwada region, that originally comprised of five districts, Aurangabad, Parbhani, Nanded, Bhir, and Osmanabad. When the state of Hyderabad was established in 1724 by Asaf Jah I, the Marathi-speaking region of the state was referred to as Marathwada.1 Though the name Marathwada for the region was first used during the 18th century, however, for our convenience, we will use this name while describing the political history of Ambajogai. The region would be under the Mauryas whose dominion extended till Mysore and beyond in the south. The Satavahanas took control of the territory after the Mauryas. The region witnessed much progress during their rule. Various Buddhist caves and viharas were excavated in the region and around during their rule. The Vakatakas gained control of the region after the Satavahanas. Initially, the region was under the main branch of the Vakatakas. However, after the death of Pravarasena I, the region around Marathwada came under his son Sarvasena while the northern areas went to other sons. Sarvasena founded the junior branch of Vakatakas and they ruled from their capital town of Vatsagulma. The last ruler of the line was Harisena, famous for various caves excavated during his reign in the Ajanta complex. After the Vakatakas, the Chalukyas of Badami gained control of the region. As they kept themselves busy in skirmishes with other dynasties in the north and the south for the expansion of their empire, the control over the Marathwada region kept oscillating. During the Arab invasion of 733 CE, the Chalukya king Vikramaditya II was ruling the region and was successful in repelling the invaders beyond the borders. with the Pallavas in the south, therefore, their influence in the Marathwada region was very meager. The end of the Badami Chalukyas in the Marathwada was brought by Dantidurga, belonging to an indigenous family of the Rashtrakutas hailing from Latur. The two centuries of the Badami Chalukyas rule of Marathwada brought significant improvements and progress in the region. Xuanzang, the Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the rule of the Badami Chalukyas, has left an interesting account of the region witnessing prosperity and peace.
The Rashtrakutas removed the Chalukyas from the Deccan and celebrated the victory by commissioning the famous Kailasa Temple at Ellora. Towards the end of the 10th century CE, the Kalyani Chalukyas overthrew the Rashtrakutas and gained control of Marathwada along with Deccan. The Chalukyas gave the region to the Seunas (Yadavas) who ruled as their feudatories. After the decline of the Kalyani Chalukyas, the Seunas asserted their independence under Bhillama V (1175-1191 CE). The Seunas ruled from Devagiri, present-day Daulatabad. Their rule of nearly two centuries is generally taken as the golden period of Marathwada. They played a significant and pivotal role in the politics of Deccan. In 1296, the Seuna king Ramachandra (1271-1311 CE) came in direct conflict with Ala-ud-din Khalji, the latter restored Devagiri to Ramachandra after the promise of annual tribute. in 1307, on non-payment of annual tributes, Khalji sent Malik Kafur to sack Devagiri. Ramachandra was captured and sent to Delhi. Khalji released Ramachandra on condition that the latter would help the Muslim forces in subduing other Hindu kings of the south. This later helped the Khalji army to defeat the Kakatiyas and Hoysalas. Simhana III (alias Sankaradeva), the successor of Ramachandra, tried to rise against Khalji. Khalji sent Malik Kafur again in 1313 and Simhana was defeated and killed in the battle. Kafur administered Devagiri till 1315 when he had to go back to Delhi due to the sudden illness of Khalji. Harpaldeva, the son-in-law of Ramachandra, made an attempt to restore the Seunas at Devagiri and was successful, though for a short period. In 1318, Qutb-ud-din Mubaraq Shah, the ruler of the Delhi sultanate marched to Devagiri and suppressed Harpaldeva, the latter died in a battle as a martyr. The last two rulers somewhat obliterated the humiliation suffered by the Seunas during Ramachandra by standing against the Muslim armies. The glory of Simhana and Harpaldeva has been cherished and emulated in Maharashtra for centuries.
The political history of Marathwada follows the general pattern of succession and dynastic changes happening at Delhi as well as the various Muslim-origin dynasties local to Deccan. In 1327 CE, Muhammad bin Tughluq shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri, the latter was renamed to Daulatabad. This puts Marathwada in the center of the politics of India. This move did not see much success and the Sultan had to shift the capital back to Delhi in 1335 CE. With the fall of the Tughluq dynasty, Marathwada came under the Bahmani Sultanate. In 1499 CE, the Bahmani Sultanate was disintegrated and various small Zizam houses distributed the bounties among them. With the rise of the Mughals in the north, Marathwada took a little longer to get integrated into the central regime. It was Akbar who brought the region under his domain in 1633 CE. Later, Aurangzeb was posted as viceroy of Daulatabad and this served as the base for the Mughals for their southern operations similar to the scheme used by the Khaljis. This period is also known as the rise of the Marathas and Shivaji. After the fall of the Mughals, Asaf Jah I established the state of Hyderabad in 1724 CE and Marathwada became a part of it. After the independence, during the linguistic realignment of the states, the Marathwada region became part of the Maharashtra state.
The first modern reference to the town is found in an article related to Hindu inscriptions. It mentions that the Jain guru of Malkheir enumerated four great nobles of the first rank as the principal feudatories of the Kalyan state. Among those four great nobles was one Jyt Pal of Amba Jogi. They were five brothers, from whom descended the Pancham Jains, of whom 80,000 in a single day became proselytes to Basavapa. They are now known as the Pancham Lingayats.2 The Jyt Pal of this legend may be the same Jaitugi (1191-1200 CE) alias Jaitrapala of the Seuna dynasty. Another legend mentions that fourteen men with Parashurama as their leader first colonized the Konkan region in 1174 BCE ( the year of the Parashurama era). As it was necessary for fire-worshippers to be married and enter into household ceremonies, Parashurama brought fourteen women from Amba Jogi in Hyderabad Deccan and married them to his fourteen followers. These women brought with them their own goddess Devi Jogai, and henceforth, the Chitpavan worshipped Parashurama and Jogai together.3
The antiquities of the town were first reported by James Burgess in 1878. However, his account only contained a description of the cave complex but no other monument. He tells the town suffered much in times of war, and probably severely in 1629, when Azam Khan, one of Shah Jahan’s officers, overran this part of the country in putting down Muqarrab Khan, Bahlol, and other rebel chiefs. Many temples were, doubtless, entirely destroyed in those lawless times, and the stones used for fortifications, and curiously enough, in one bastion there is an old temple of the thirteenth century (A.D. 1240) quite built over so that it would be impossible to discover it unless a portion of the facing had fallen down on the north side of the east porch leaving a small opening under a lintel. Inside this temple, Burgess found an inscription mentioning Singhana dated Saka 1162.4 The account of the cave from Burgess was further briefed and published in a compendium on the cave temples of India from James Fergusson, and additions from Burgess.5
Not much has been written on the Marathwada region on its art and architecture till 1971 when Deglurkar conducted a survey of its cultural history. He submitted his thesis to Poona University and it included a few dedicated chapters describing the art and architecture of the region.6 In 1973, P R Deo conducted another survey and submitted his thesis.7 No significant study has been conducted since then. Except for a few temples at Ter, the temple construction activities in Marathwada are only seen after the tenth century CE. There is a dearth of early-period temples in the region. Like the temples of North Gujarat are generally ascribed to Siddharaja, of Karnataka to Jakhanacharya, of Khandesh to Gavalirajas, the temples of Marathawada are ascribed to Hemadpant (Hemadri Pandit) and thus are called Hemadpanti style temples. Hemadri Pandita was the chief minister of the Yadava king Maahdev (1269-1271 CE) and Ramachandra (1271-1309 CE). These temples do not belong to one common style but instead preserve many earlier styles tracing their origins to earlier dynasties.8
Jogi Sabha Mandapa – This cave temple complex is located in the north of the town, on the eastern banks of the Jayanti River. It is excavated in a trap rock. An entrance in the south led a visitor into an open courtyard measuring 90 feet by 45 feet. A 34.5-foot square mandapa with sloping roofs is constructed in the middle of this courtyard. Inside the mandapa is an oval platform where an image of Nandi is placed. Four pillars on this platform support the ceiling above. Two large elephants stand in front of the mandapa, in the west. The main shrine is excavated in the eastern rear wall of the complex. Two huge elephants, one in the north and another in the south stand in front of the shrine. It is a large hall, measuring 91 feet long and 45 feet deep, with thirty-two pillars supporting its roof. The rear wall has a principal shrine in the middle flanked by two cells in its north and one in its south. One cell is excavated on the northern wall and another cell preceded by an antarala is excavated in its southern wall.
As the sculptures in the cave hall have much deteriorated and a few are beyond recognition, we have to depend on the account from Burgess, as these might be in somewhat better condition during his visit. Starting from the northern end, the first sculpture is of Ganesha carved in a corner. The image is now beyond recognition except for the faint outline of a figure shown seated over some platform or throne. He is followed by six matrka images whose identification is not possible due to the damage. The next sculpture is of a ten-armed dancing Shiva. There is a figure on his left whom Burgess identifies with Parvati. To the left is the first cell with a large socket over the center of its lintel. Animal riders, one each at either hand, are carved at the terminals of the lintel. After the cell is an image that Burgess identified with Shiva. To his left is the principal cell flanked by two large dvarapalas on either side. The doorway consists of four shakhas (bands). There are figures at the base of the jambs. Deglurkar says these figures are of Ganga and Yamuna, however, the sculptures are so deteriorated that no confirmation can be made.9 Inside the shrine are the faint traces of Trimurti-Shiva which may correspond to the three different aspects of the Sadashiva similar to the famous Trimurti Shiva sculpture in Elephanta. The last figure is of Mahishasuramardini. The cave is generally dated to the 7th century CE.
Burgess mentions there was another cave next to this complex. The rear walls of that cave were covered with sculptures of Vishnu-avataras, various forms of Shiva, and his consort. He writes, “To the west of the above cave, across a stream, are the remains of other caves of this group. However, these are so overgrown with prickly pear and destroyed by a current of water that flows through those in the monsoon. This cave is 100 feet long and 41 feet deep. The stream has carried away whole of the roof. The design is like the above cave, a shrine-hall in the rear and an open courtyard with Nandi-mandapa in the front. In the rear wall are a few images, dancing Shiva accompanied by Narada and Brahma. To the left of first pilaster on the back wall is a sculpture of Bhairava and of Ganesha. In the recess is a sculpture of Mahishasuramardini and on the right side of it two females with trishula, possibly Durga. On the other side of pilaster are four figures, two above and two below. The recess on other side has a figure of ten-armed Bhairava. In the back wall of the western part of the cave are four recesses. The second recess has Vishnu-Trivikrama. The third has Narasimha and the last has Vishnu seated over Shesha. In the right wall are some small figures followed by eight-armed Bhairava with his spear pierced through a demon (Andhakantaka?) (sic.).” However, no traces of that cave can be found now.
Jain Caves – This Jain Cave Complex is very similar in plan to the Jogi Sabha Mandapa. In front of the cave hall is an open courtyard approached via a descent six-step staircase. Two elephants flank the staircase on either side. In the middle of a courtyard is a plinth 2.5 feet high.10 The main hall of the cave measures 41 feet wide and 14 feet deep. It is projected on its lateral side forming wings. The ceiling of the hall is supported by four pillars in the middle.
Three shrines have been excavated at the rear wall. Each shrine contains an image of Parshvanatha in dhyana-mudra seated beneath a serpent canopy. He is attended by two attendants carved in kayotsarga-mudra. Each wing on the lateral side has a cell in the rear wall and two pillars in the front. Wings are 22 feet long and 8 feet deep. The wall in the west of the main hall is covered with twenty-four images of Jain Tirthankaras, three rows of eight figures each.
Kholeshwar Temple – This temple is situated in the north of the town temple faces east and consists of a garbhagrha, antarala, and a mandapa connected with three ardha-mandapa, one each on its cardinal sides. Thus, the temple has three entrances, one each in the east, north, and south. It is built over a high-rising jagati, 4 feet high, that follows the contours of the shrine. The ardha-mandapa in the east or mukha-mandapa being the main entrance, is a small rectangular open chamber measuring 11 feet by 8 feet.11 It is reached by a flight of steps enclosed within parapet walls. Its ceiling is flat and is supported by two front pillars. Benches with backrests are provided on the lateral sides. Ardha-mandapas in the south and the north follow the design of the mukha-mandapa.
The mandapa is a square hall measuring 20 feet.12 It has a square platform (rangashala) in the center. The ceiling rests on eight pillars. These pillars support beams that carry a domical ceiling above. The domical ceiling is made of ten concentric circles diminishing in size as those move up. From the top circle hands a pendant bud. Two niches are provided in the mandapa. These niches now have images of later periods. The niche on the left has an image of Ganesha and the niche on the right has an image of Kartikeya. The antarala is rectangular in size measuring 10 feet by 8 feet.13 It has two niches on its lateral walls. The niches are empty. The garbhagrha is a square chamber measuring 10 feet. It has a niche on its south wall. The doorway is pancha-shakha. Vaishnava dvarapalas are present over the base of the jambs accompanied by fly-whisk carriers. The river goddesses, Ganga and Yamuna, are also present over the jamb with the dvarapalas. Among the five shakhas, the outermost carries animal figures, the next to its left has scroll decoration, the next is stambha-shakha, the next has kirti-mukhas and the innermost shakha has floral designs. Ganesha is present over the lalata-bimba. The entablature above the lintel has five niches but all are empty. There is a small Shivalinga inside the garbhagrha, which appears out of proportion in comparison to the size of the garbhagrha. A sculpture of Uma-Maheshvara is placed inside the niche.
The exterior walls are plain. The bhadra niches are provided on each wall, all carrying mutilated sculptures. The southern bhadra niche has Narasimha, the western bhadra niche has Vishnu, and the northern bhadra niche has Shiva-Natesha. The sculptures in the bhadra and indications from the inscription suggest that the temple was originally dedicated to Vishnu. However, it appears that the temple was reappropriated at some later point in time when it adorned the Shaiva character, and a Shiva linga was installed inside the garbhagrha.14
Inscription – A large black basalt stone slab bearing an inscription from the reign of the Seuna king Singhana is placed inside the temple. This inscription was first noticed by James Burgess and edited by G Buhler. The stone slab is fixed on the south wall of the east porch of the temple. The inscription mentions the construction of the Ramanarayana temple built by Lakshmi in memory of her brother Ramadeva, son and successor of Kholeshvara. The inscription contains twenty-seven lines. It is engraved in the Nagari characters and is written in the Sanskrit language. It is dated to the Saka year 1162, equivalent to 1240 CE. The inscription refers to the reign of the Seuna kinga Singhana while Lakshmi was looking after the affairs of the principality on behalf of the son of Ramadeva. The inscription starts with benedictive verses invoking Ganesha and Vagdevi (Saraswati). It then describes the Seuna (Yadava) king Simha (i.e., Simhana or Singhana). It then describes the family of Maudgala Brahmana and Kholeshvara, the son of Trivikrama. Kholeshvara is said to crush the pride of the Gurjaras, Malavas, and Abhiras. It is followed by accounts of the valor and excellence of Ramadeva, the son of Kholeshvara. Ramadeva dies in a battle against the Gurjaras on the other bank of Narmada. It then describes Lakshmi as a regent for the unnamed son of Ramadeva. She kept herself busy with the construction of temples, step-wells, parks, and other pious works. She constructed a temple of Ramanarayana in Brahmapuri to serve as a memorial for Ramadeva. The inscription ends with an imprecatory verse and the names of the author, and the scribe. It was composed by Vagdevatabhatta and inscribed by Joiya, son of Rameya, a resident of Novara.15
Sakaleshwara Temple – This temple is situated in the west of the town. It stands over a hill and faces east. The temple has survived with its garbhagrha, antarala, and the pillars of its mandapa. It was constructed over a jagati, the latter is completely buried underground. The overall structure measures 45 feet by 32 feet.16 The antarala measures 9 feet by 4 feet and has a decorated ceiling. The garbhagrha is a 9 feet square chamber and its floor level is below the antarala. A fleet of ten steps down takes a visitor to the floor level of the garbhagrha. The doorway is plain, simple, and devoid of any decoration. The exterior walls are all plain and devoid of any sculpture.
The mandapa is an open hall measuring about 24 feet square. The central nave of the mandapa is encircled by twelve pillars. Among these twelve pillars, six pillars are adorned with large female sculptures covering the whole shaft of the pillars. The star-shaped central section of the mandapa has eight additional pillars over its circumference. The ceiling and side walls are in ruins thus its original character cannot be ascertained. The Amba inscription of Kholeshvara dated 1228 CE mentions the erection of this temple by Kholeshvara, the Yadava general (Deglurkar, p. 194, PMKL, No 23, p. 118, SMHD, 1, p. 75).
Inscription – This inscription was first brought to notice by G H Khare. This stone slab now rests against a wall in a private garden. The slab originally belonged to the Sakaleshvara temple as evident from its contents. Khare says that it was brought to its present location by an English army officer. There are forty-seven lines. It is composed in Sanskrit and written in Nagari characters. It is dated in the Saka year 1150, equivalent to 1228-29 CE. The inscription mentions certain grants by Kholeshvara in favor of the god Sakaleshvara. The inscription opens with a benedictory verse for Ganesha. The next comes a few verses in praise of the Seuna (Yadava) king Singhana. These are followed by a detailed description of the qualities and military achievements of his general Kholeshvara. This is followed by a list of numerous grants made by Kholeshvara from time to time to the god Sakaleshvara. At the end of the inscription comes an imprecatory verse mentioning the calamities that would befall a sinner who tries to revoke the grants and also, a command to his successors and other facilities to continue the grants. At the end are the names of the composer and engraver etc. The inscription was composed by Rama, and engraved by Naaikya, son of Saresha, a servant of Medipau and Adhivaniya. It also tells that the inscription was first written out on bhurjapatra and later engraved on the stone. This inscription is of great importance as it enumerates various military conquests of the Yadava king Singhana as well as of his general, Kholeshvara.17
Amaleshwar Temple – The temple is situated in the north of town and stands amidst the hills in picturesque surroundings. It faces east and consists of a garbhagrha, antarala, and a mandapa. The complete shrine as it stands today measures 27 feet by 15 feet.18 Later, the temple was enclosed within a courtyard by constructing surrounding walls. Probably, during the same time, its mandapa was reconstructed utilizing little of the original material. The garbhagrha is a small square chamber. It has a Shiva linga inside. The doorway is left plain except for the images of Shaiva dvarapalas on either side of the jambs. The antarala is a rectangular chamber with a width larger than usual. The flat ceiling of the antarala is very ornate with a lotus in its center. It is adorned with sculptures of Shiva as Natesha and Andhakasuravadha-murti. The ceiling is supported over the triangular architraves.
The mandapa is a 15 feet square hall with an entrance in the east. It is divided into nave and aisle design by four pillars. The upper square members of the pillars are decorated with various sculptures representing Rama, Lakshmana, Ganesha, Shiva, Saraswati, etc. The ceiling is flat and decorated with various sculptures. As the temple exterior is very ornate, it appears that the original ornate doorframe has not survived and was later replaced with this plain doorframe.
The adhishthana starts with a frieze of elephants shown fighting horses and lions. This frieze also has a few sculptures of warriors and dancers. Above this are various bands of different geometric designs. Mini-panjara-shrines are provided over the kalasa molding. The plan is sapta-ratha with seven projections and corresponding recesses. Sculptures of various female apsaras and damsels are carved in the recessed portion and the projected portions are left devoid of sculptures. There are a total of twenty-two female figures over the exterior wall. The bhadra niches on all sides are empty. Other sculptures over the exterior walls are of Narasimha, Vamana, Trivikrama, and Ganesha.
- The Yogeshvari Temple Inscription of Kholeshvara19 – This inscription was first noticed by James Burgess. It was first edited and published in Marathi by G H Khare. This inscription slab is built into the western wall of Chaubara temple. It has forty-one lines. It is composed in Sanskrit and written in the Nagari characters. The record is not dated but it refers to the Sakaleshvara temple. It belongs to the reign of the Yadava king Singhana and his general Kholeshvara. It records the construction of a temple dedicated to the goddess Yogeshvari by Kholeshvara and a grant to that temple. It mentions Ambe or Amrapura was the headquarters of Kholeshvara. In general, the inscription follows the content of the earlier inscription of Kholeshvara for the grants to the Sakaleshvara temple. The inscription was composed by a Brahmana physician and poet named Madhava, son of Bhatta Dhaneshvara. It was written by Trilochana and engraved by Sema Prabhu.
- A fragmentary inscription of Kholeshvara from Ambe Jogai20 – This inscription was first noticed by G H Khare. It is cut into a stone slab built up in the wall of a little temple to the south of a tank on the Mayamochana-tirtha situated at the west of the Yogeshvari temple. Its contents are more or less the same as the other inscriptions described above.
Acknowledgment: Some of the photos above are in CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain from the collection released by the Tapesh Yadav Foundation for Indian Heritage.
1 Kate, P V (1987). Marathwada under the Nizams (1724-1948). Mittal Publications. Delhi. p. 1
2 Elliot, Walter (1837). Hindu Inscriptions published in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. four. p. 32
3 Singh, K S. (1998). People of India – India’s Communities, vol. 5. Oxford University Press. p. 1802
4 Burgess, James (1878). Report on the Antiquities in the Bidar and Aurangabad Districts. Trubner & Co. London. pp. 49-52
5 Fergusson & Burgess (1880, 1969 reprint). The Cave Temples of India. Oriental Book Reprint Corporation. Delhi. p. 425
6 Deglurkar, G B (1971). Cultural History of Marathwada (With Special Reference to the Old Monuments From A.D. 6th to 13th cent.), a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the University of Poona.
7 Deo, Prabhakar Raghunath (1973). Temples of Marathwada, a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the Marathwada University.
8 Deo, Prabhakar Raghunath (1973). Temples of Marathwada, a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the Marathwada University. p. 61
9 Deglurkar, G B (1971). Cultural History of Marathwada (With Special Reference to the Old Monuments From A.D. 6th to 13th cent.), a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the University of Poona. p. 151
10 Deglurkar, G B (1971). Cultural History of Marathwada (With Special Reference to the Old Monuments From A.D. 6th to 13th cent.), a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the University of Poona. pp. 172-173
11 Deo, Prabhakar Raghunath (1973). Temples of Marathwada, a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the Marathwada University. p. 166
12 Deo, Prabhakar Raghunath (1973). Temples of Marathwada, a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the Marathwada University. p. 167
13 Deo, Prabhakar Raghunath (1973). Temples of Marathwada, a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the Marathwada University. p. 168
14 Deglurkar, G B (1990). Initial Dedication of Temples Some Iconographic Clues published in the Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute vol. 50, Golden Jubilee. p. 191
15 Shastri, Ajay Mitra (1972). Yadava Inscriptions from Ambe Jogai. Vishveshvaranand Institute. Hoshiarpur. pp. 49-62
16 Deo, Prabhakar Raghunath (1973). Temples of Marathwada, a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the Marathwada University. p. 156
17 Shastri, Ajay Mitra (1972). Yadava Inscriptions from Ambe Jogai. Vishveshvaranand Institute. Hoshiarpur. pp. 5-36
18 Deo, Prabhakar Raghunath (1973). Temples of Marathwada, a Ph. D. thesis submitted to the Marathwada University. p. 144
19 Shastri, Ajay Mitra (1972). Yadava Inscriptions from Ambe Jogai. Vishveshvaranand Institute. Hoshiarpur. pp. 37-48
20 Shastri, Ajay Mitra (1972). Yadava Inscriptions from Ambe Jogai. Vishveshvaranand Institute. Hoshiarpur. pp. 3-4