Kodumbalur – Glory of the Irukkuvels

Kodambalur is a small village in Pudukkottai district in Tamilnadu. The village is one of the most ancient place in the district and its earliest reference is found in Silappatikaram1 as Kodumbai, a village situated by bund of a large tank on the way from Uraiyur (at present neighborhood in Tiruchirapalli) to Madura (modern Madurai). The village is also famous for the birthplace of Idangazhi Nayanar, one of the sixty-three Nayanar saints. Periyapuranam mentions that he was an Irukku Velir chief ruling Konadu region with Kodumpalur as its capital. The text describes the capital city as:

”Kodumpaaloor of Konaadu is the capital in whose
Ponds and tanks of cool and lucid waters,
Chafers buzz over fragrant and melliferous red lotuses
And drink their honey; there the storks and their mates
Get well fed and these, to shun the moist northern wind
Slumber in the gardens of Kurukkatthi.“

By the end of sixth century CE, after the Kalabhra interregnum ended, Tamilnadu came under the rule of two major dynasties, the Pallavas in the north and the Pandyas in the south. Pudukkottai region acted as a buffer state between these two till the advent of the Cholas in the mid-ninth century CE. The region kept shuffling its allegiance between these two dynasties at different periods. Northern part of Pudukkottai was under the rule of the Mutharaiyars while the southern was with the Irukkuvels. Kodumbalur, the capital town of the Irukkuvels, became the scene of various battles and conflicts during 8th century CE when Nandivarman II (731-796 CE) ascended the Pallava throne. His accession was contested by other Pallava princes and they were helped by the Pandyas. In the end, it was the Pallavas who emerged victorious. Kodumbalur may have played an important part in these battles. We gather from the Sendalai pillar inscriptions2 that Perumbidugu Mutharaiyar alias Suvaran Maran, king of Tanjai (present Thanjavur), gained victory at Kodumbalur. He also defeated the people of Konadu in the battle of Kannanur and a Pandya chief at Tingalur. The inscription is silent on the Mutharaiyar’s adversary in the battle of Kodumbalur. A different picture emerges from the Pandya inscriptions. The Velvikudi grant3 mentions that Maravarman Rajasimha alias Ter Maran (730-765 CE) gained victory at Kodumbalur and defeated the Pallavas at Kulumbur. As both the parties claim victories at Kodumbalur, it may be that they are referring to two different battles, however what is clear that the Pallavas emerged victorious with Nandivarman II putting an end of all revolts.

Two centuries later, Kodumbalur again witnessed a clash between the Pandyas and the Cholas (or Mutharaiyars), as we infer from the large Sinnamanur grant4 that Maravarman Rajasimha III (900-920 CE), surnamed Vikatavadava and Mandaragaurava, drove the king of Tanjai in the battle of Naippur and won a battle at Kodumbai and destroyed the lord of the southern Tanjai country Naval.

Brahma from Kodumbalur now in Art Institvte Chicago

Among the Irukkuvel chiefs of Kodumbalur, the most famous was Bhuti Vikramakesari, the founder of the Moovar Koil. The foundation inscription in the temple provides various details of the illustrious Irukkuvel family. The family traces its lineage to the Yadavas, the clan of Lord Krishna of Dwarka. Paradurgamardhana, the grandfather of Bhuti Vikramakesari, is said to have conquered Vatapi (present Badami), the traditional capital of the Western Chalukyas. His father, Samarabhirama, is told to have killed Chalukki in the battle of Adhirajamangala. Bhuti’s mother, Anupama, was a Chola princess. The inscription mentions that king Bhuti Vikramakesari fought against the Pallavas and the Pandyas. He named his sons Parantaka and Adityavarman, probably after his Chola sovereigns. From the inscription we can gather that the family was ruling over Kodumbalur from a significant period and they were connected to the Cholas matrimonially, making them taking side of the Cholas against the latter’s fights with the Pallavas and the Pandyas.

Dating of Bhuti Vikramakesari is a matter of controversy. Venkataranga Raju5 was probably the first to date the Moovar Koil in tenth century CE thus putting Bhuti Vikramakesari to the same period. With the discovery of the Kilur inscription of the Pallavas, K G Krishnan6 suggests that Maravan Pudi alias Tennavan Ilangovelar is same as Bhuti Vikramakesari making him contemporary to the Pallava king Nandivarman III (846-869 CE) and the Chola king Aditya I (871-907 CE). S R Balasubrahmanyam7 reassess all evidences and rejects identification of Maravan Pudi with Bhuti Vikramakesari. He concludes that Bhuti Vikramakesari should be considered as a contemporary of Sundara Chola (957-970 CE) and Aditya II. His theory is based upon two main arguments, 1) the paleography of the inscription favors 10th century CE, 2) there is no Pandya king bearing name Vira Pandya with title Cholantalaikonda (“who took the head of the Chola”) contemporary to Parantaka I. Douglas Barrett agrees with Balasubrahmanyam taking Bhuti Vikramakesari as a contemporary of Sundara Chola.

K V Soundara Rajan8 mentions that by series of complicated equations based on epigraphical data, Maravan Pudi alias Tennavan Ilangovelar alias Bhuti Vikramakesari has now been established to be a senior contemporary of the Chola king Aditya I (871-907 CE). He writes, “The paleography, the contents of the inscription, and the style of the building, however, all clearly suggest that the temple is at least three generations older than the time of Sundara Chola (AD 956-973) with whom such authorities have attempted to associate Bhuti Vikramakesari.” N Sethuraman9 explains that the first Vira Pandya who assumed the title Cholantalaikonda was an early contemporary of Parantaka Chola and probably distinguished himself in the battle of Kodumbalur against Bhuti Vikramakesari. He should be distinguished from Vira Pandya who was killed by Aditya II later around 958 CE.

Monuments – There are four monuments of interest in Kodumbalur, three are under the protection of ASI (Archaeological Survey of India).

Moovar Koil
North-east view | Arvind Venkataraman

Moovar KoilMoovar Koil in Tamil means “three temples” and the complex is named so very aptly. This temple complex consists of three separate shrines, standing in a line facing west, with their  front ardha-mandapas connecting to a common maha-mandapa, followed by a Nandi-mandapa, bali-pitha and a dhvaja-stambha. There are also remains of fifteen or sixteen subsidiary shrines, all enclosed within an enclosure wall. There were two entrances into the complex, one through west with a gopura on top and another in north-east opening into a circular stone well. Of the three temples, two have survived fully while only the base of the third remains.

Central shrine | Arvind Venkataraman

Local traditions and folklores give some interesting interpretations for the term ‘Moovar’. As per one belief, three Shaiva saints (nayanars) Appar, Sundarar and Manikkavachakar built one shrine each. Another belief states that kings of three major dynasties Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas constructed one shrine each. Another tradition states that these three shrines were constructed to house Hindu Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The foundation inscription clears all doubts, stating that these temples were constructed by the Irukkuvel chief Bhooti Vikramakesari on behalf of himself and his two wives, Karrali and Varaguna.

View from north | Arvind Venkataraman
Standing Shiva or Shiva-Bhikshatana | Arvind Venkataraman
Ardhanarishvara | Arvind Venkataraman
Ardhanarishvara | Arvind Venkataraman

Both the temples are very similar in architecture, style and approach except their sculptural decoration. The adhishthana is built over an upana and composed of a jagati decorated with lotus petals, vrttakumuda, kantha over-imposed with vyalas distributed over its length with makaras on the corners and finally a reduced pattika and prati. Barrett10 takes this adhisthana decoration as an original early Chola form while Soundara Rajan states that this is the earliest example of padmapushkala adhisthana. A padmapushkala adhisthana contains elements of padmabandha and vaprabandha adhisthana. The lotus decoration over jagati comes from padmabandha and the vrtta-kumuda capped within urdhva-padma and adhah-padma clasps come from vaprabandha. The vimana is tri-ratha in plan, with three niches on each side except in the west. The niches are compartmentalized within two pilasters, the central  or bhadra niche is broader than the corner or karna niches. In the central shrine, bhadra niche is decorated with an elaborate makara-torana  resting over its side pilasters. In the bhadra niche are found Ardhanarishvara in the east, Shiva-Bhikshatana in the north and niche in the south is empty.

Seated Shiva in North | Arvind Venkataraman
Shiva with Uma in the East | Arvind Venkataraman
Shiva as Dakshinamurti in the south | Arvind Venkataraman

The shikhara is dvi-tala (two tier) and rests above the walls, separated by a cornice moulding. Below the cornice is a regular bhuta or gana frieze shown playing various musical instruments. Above the cornice runs a vyala frieze. The first floor has an arrangement of kuta-sala-kuta, sala in middle with kutas at the corners. Niches on the sala shrine are decorated with an image. In the north is found Shiva (Barrett identifies him with Vishnu), in the east is placed Shiva seated with Uma, in the south is found Dakshinamurti, while the niche in the west is empty.

Shiva seated with one of his hand over a linga in the north | Arvind Venkataraman
Shiva seated with Uma in the west | Arvind Venkataraman
Dakshinamurti in the south | Arvind Venkataraman
Indra over an elephant in the east | Arvind Venkataraman

The second floor (tala) is bereft of the kuta-sala-kuta arrangement. The sala of the first tala is extended to this floor covering the central portion of each side. Apsaras or damsels are adorning the karna niche on this tala. A square griva rises above this tala supporting a square cupola above. Large kudu arches are provided in the middle of all sides. Nandis are placed at the corners. In the griva niches are found, Shiva with Uma in the west, Shiva seated with one his hand resting over a linga in the north, Indra riding over an elephant in the east and Dakshinamurti in the south. Over the square cupola is topped with a kalasa, stupi and other elements.

Southern shrine | Arvind Venkataraman
Bhikshatana in the north | Arvind Venkataraman
Shiva as Gangadhara in the east | Arvind Venkataraman
Vinadhara Shiva in the south | Arvind Venkataraman
Harihara in the west | Arvind Venkataraman
Shiva with Parvati in the north | Arvind Venkataraman
Kalari in the east | Arvind Venkataraman
Natesha in the south | Arvind Venkataraman

The iconographic theme of the southern shrine is much elaborate and richer in comparison to the central shrine. Among the icons placed in bhadra niches, in the north is found Shiva as Bhikshatana, in the east is placed Shiva as Gangadhara and in the south is found Shiva holding a vina (Vinadhara Dakshinamurti?). Icons on the first tier are Harihara in the west, standing Shiva with Parvati in the north, Kalari in the east and Natesha in the south. The sculpture of Kalari, Shiva annihilating Yama (Kala), is definitely one of the best art specimen of the Irukkuvel period. Shiva is shown dancing in a destructive posture standing over a lying figure of Yama. Though shown in a fierce attitude, a faint smile over Shiva’s face makes the overall theme very amiable and pleasant.

Shiva with Parvati in the north | Arvind Venkataraman
Tripurantaka in the east | Arvind Venkataraman
Gajasamharamurti in the south | Arvind Venkataraman

Niches over griva also have some interesting icons. Niche in the west is empty, in the north is placed Shiva standing with Parvati, in the east is found Tripurantaka and in the south is Shiva as Gajasamharamurti where he shown tearing apart the skin of an elephant. Depicted with four hands he carries a snake in one of hand while another hand is in suchi mudra pointing downwards. The image of Tripurantaka is considered among the best specimens of the Irukkuvel period. Here, Shiva is shown holding a bow and taking a dancing posture, identified as kodukotti by R Nagaswami10. He tells that this dance was performed immediately after the destruction of the Tripurasuras.

Tripurantaka from Kodumbalur, now in Madras Museum | AIIS

We have already discussed the dating of Bhuti Vikramakesari and associated controversies. These also apply when we try to date this temple. Barrett12 appears to be in double thoughts when he dates the temple within a decade either side of 960 CE, asserting that there is nothing in the architecture of the temple which demands a date early in the second half of the tenth century CE. The base, elevation and detail remain firmly rooted in the style of the First Phase, to which, indeed, the temple complex has sometimes been attributed. He says that the temple seems to be the sole representative of the Second Phase on the southern border of the Cholamandalam. Gary J Schwindler13 disagrees with Barrett in latter’s placement of Moovar Koil to the second phase explaining that the temple fits stylistically more comfortably in the First Phase. Soundara Rajan takes this temple as clearest statement of the Konadu idiom preserved and places it between 878 and 886 CE. He also identifies this temple with the Tiruppudishvara temple mentioned in the foundation inscription of Muchukundeshvara Temple on the basis that the founder of the Moovar Koil was Maravan Pudi giving his name to the temple. M A Dhaky14 takes that this monument was constructed soon after the famous war of Tirupurambium, around 880 CE. It is now generally believed that king Bhuti Vikramakesari was a contemporary of the Chola king Aditya I (870-907 CE) and he would have constructed these temples during the last decades of the ninth century CE.

Tripurasundari from Kodumbalur, now in Madras Museum | AIIS

We understand the risks associating art and style to a dynasty. Region may offer a better classification rather than dynasties. However, as there are many past studies basing classifications on dynasties, it would not be out of space to have a look into those here. Kodumbalur being situated in the traditional Chola land, its art and temples are considered as part of the larger Chola idiom during its early phase. Early stages of any style are generally evaluated for the influences on it from the nearby regions and its predecessors. Similarly, various theories are proposed for the foreign influence over the temple style and architecture during the early Chola period. The most discussed proposition is that there is a significant and considerable influence coming from the Pallavas and Chalukyas, as many of their temples are pre-dated before the start of the Chola dynasty. Bhoothalingam15 writes, “Experts declare that they are Chola temples and details confirm this, yet none can fail to be struck by their Pallava grace. The style and the moulding of the sculpture have the same quality of distinguished restraint which gave them the distinctive Pallava air of austere charm. How did the Kodumbalur Chola temples happen to get this touch when it is clear that the chieftains of Kodumbalur were such staunch allies and lieutenants of the Cola sovereigns?”

Another proposal is of Pandyan influence of which Soundara Rajan is the main proponent. His argument is based upon the construction material. While many of the Pallava and Chalukya structural temples are constructed not in granite stone, therefore the Cholas would have got inspiration of using granite from somewhere else, and that is from the Pandyas. Barrett appears to agree with the Pandyan influence however he has different arguments for the same. Rama Sivaram16 opines that the search for Chola style must begin somewhere within the Mutharaiyar territories as the making of the Chola architecture began with Vijayalaya’s conquest of Thanjavur from the Mutharaiyars.

Inscriptions – Few inscriptions discovered in the temple complex are listed below:

  1. On the south wall of the central shrine of Moovar koil17 – Sanskrit language, Pallava-grantha characters – mentions Bhuti alias Vikramakesari built three shrines in his name and in the names of his two wives, Karrali and Varaguna and consecrated Mahadeva. He also donated a matha and eleven villages to Mallikarjuna of Mathura (Madura?) for the offerings to the god and feeding of fifty Asitvatkara (kalamukha) ascetics. Mallikarjuna was born in Atreya-gotra and disciple of Vidyarasi. Genealogy of Bhuti, said to be born in Yadu-vamsa as Minnamala, is provided – Paravirajit, Viratunga, Ativira, Sangakrit, Nripakesari, Paradurgamardhana, Samarabhirama. His grandfather Paradurgamardhana is said to have conquered Vatapi. His father Samarabhirama is told to have killed Chalukki in the battle of Adhirajamangala. Bhuti’s mother, Anupama, was a Chola princess. Bhuti fought against the Pallava armies and conquered Vira-Pandya in the battle and killed Vanchivel. Bhuti, from his wife Karrali, begot Parantaka and Adityavarman.
  2. On the north wall of the central shrine of the Moovar koil18 – refers to certain regnal year of the Chola king Rajendra I – mentions various victories conferred upon the king, also mentions the temple at Kodumbalur in Urattur-kurram of Konadu in Keralantaka valanadu.
Aivar Koil

Aivar Koil (Aintali) – Aivar Koil in Tamil means ‘five temples’, named aptly it being a quincunx (panchayatana) complex comprising of five shrines, one placed in the center and one each at corners. Only the base of the structure has survived suggesting that its walls and shikhara was probably constructed in brick and stucco as the opinion of K V Soundara Rajan. The complex faces east. Adhisthana of the central shrine is of padabandha type, resting over an upana and composed on a jagati, tripatta-kumuda, kantha sandwiched between two kampa courses, a pattika and a prati. The central shrine was of sandhara type, provided with a circumambulation path around its sanctum. All the five shrines were found having a Shivalinga inside. The temple was extended with an ardha-mandapa and a maha-mandapa in later periods. Both were provided with a flight of steps for entrances, ardha-mandapa with two entrances, one on north and one in south, and maha-mandapa with an entrance on the west.

A Nandi-mandapa was added to the complex later. An image of Nandi is still there in this mandapa. In the excavations are found an image of four-armed Durga, an image of four-armed Vishnu and six images of dvarapalas. Soundara Rajan dates the temple to the first quarter of ninth-century CE, the period of Cattan (Sattan) Maravan, father of Bhuti Vikramakesari. He suggests that Aivar Koil is perhaps the first important monument of the Irukkuvels at their capital belonging to a time when they had direct matrimonial ties with the Mutharaiyars. He also draws similarities of this temple with that of Sundaravarada temple at Uttiramerur built during the Pallava king Dantivarman (795-846 CE). The Brahma image in the Chicago Art Institute is probably from this temple site.

Inscriptions – Various inscriptions found in the temple complex are provided below:

  1. On the east tier of the mandapa of Aivar temple19 – refers to the sixth regnal year of the Chola king Parakesarivarman – records a gift of a perpetual lamp by a certain individual for the welfare of his wife, in the temple of Tiru Aindali-Mahadeva at Kodumbalur in Urattur-kurram.
  2. At the same place20 – refers to the fifteenth regnal year of the Chola king Rajakesarivarman – the available portion only provides a name of a lady, Nangayar Anantan Paliyili of Urattur-kurram. Soundara Rajan suggest that this Rajakesarivarman might be identified with the Chola king Aditya I (870-907 CE). He opines that the lady Nangayar Anantan Paliyili would be same as Paliyili Siriyanangai, wife of Mallan Anantan and daughter of Sattan Paliyili of Narthamalai inscription of Paliyilisvaram cave temple.
  3. On the south tier of the same mandapa21 – refers to the eighteenth regnal year of the Chola king Rajakesarivarman – registers a gift for a perpetual lamp by a certain individual, in the temple of Tiru Aindali Mahadeva at Kodumbalur.
  4. On a stone built into the pond in front of the Muchukundesvara temple22 – Sanskrit language, much damaged, seems to be a genealogy, name of Atri can be recognized
  5. On the three stones built into the same pond23 – Kannada language, ancient characters – fragmentary inscription mentions Kodumbalur and kesarisvara
  6. On the south tier of the mandapa of the Aivar temple24 – refers to fourteenth regnal year of the Chola king Rajaraja I, corresponding 999 CE – refers to a donation for a perpetual lamp by a certain individual
Muchukundesvara Temple

Muchkundesvara Temple – The temple faces east and consists of a garbha-grha, ardha-mandapa, a closed maha-mandapa and an open pillared mandapa, the last two are later additions. The open pillared mandapa was built with materials taken from other ruined temples as its built in a haphazard manner.  The temple stands within a complex, on corner of which were constructed four temples, all facing the central temple. One shrine is empty while other three have images, an image of Kartikeya, Chandeshvara and a later image of Bhairava.

Arrangement of sub-shrines in a parivara type temple
Southern facade of the vimana

The vimana is a tri-tala (three tiers) shrine with its first tala in tri-ratha style. Adhishthana is built over an upana and composed of a jagati, tripatta-kumuda, kantha sandwiched between two kampa courses and pattika. Tri-ratha design results into a central bhadra niche (devakoshtha) and corner karna niches. All the niches are bereft of images. Second tala has arrangement of kuta-sala-kuta on each side. Niches have been provided on the sala, and the images installed in these niches are of Vinadhara-Dakshinamurti in the south, Vishnu in the west and Brahma in the north. Niches are also provided on the griva in the uppermost third tier (tala) of the shikhara. It houses the same icons as of the second tala.

Ganas over lintel

Earlier the temple was assumed constructed during the reign of the Chola king Aditya I taking evidence of an inscription (no 33 of Inscriptions of Pudukkottai State). However a later discovered inscription clearly states that in the fourteenth regnal year of the Chola king Parantaka I, Mahimalaya Irukkuvel alias Parantaka Vira Chola alias Kunjaramallan appointed the priests of the Tiruppudisvaram temple to conduct worship in the new temple of Mudukundamudaiyar. This suggests that the Tiruppudisvaram temple was a separate and distinct temple25. Barrett26 places the temple in around 921 CE, taking Mahimalaya, the builder of the temple, as a contemporary of Parantaka I and Gandharaditya. An inscription at Nirpalani27 also confirms contemporaneity of  the Irukkuvel chief Parantaka Vira Chola alias Mahimalaya with the Chola king Gandharaditya (950-956 CE). Based upon these evidences, the temple may be placed in the first half of the tenth century CE.

Inscriptions – Various inscriptions found in the temple complex are provided below.

  1. On a pillar in the mandapa in front of the central shrine28 – refers to the twenty-first regnal year of the Chola king Rajakesarivarman, identified with Aditya I, corresponding 892 CE – Records gift for a perpetual lamp to the temple of Tiruppudisvarattu Mahadeva at Kodumbalur in Urattur-kurram.
  2. On the west wall of the same mandapa29 – refers to the seventh regnal year of the Irukkuvel Ko-Parakesari Irukkuvel – records a gift of tax-free land by Virachola Muvendiravelan to the deities consecrated at Tirumudukunram for food offerings and festival days. The deities were installed by the kanmalar and Alakan Virachola-visvakarma who belonged to the udankut-tam (of the king).
  3. On the north wall of the same mandapa30 – refers to the ninth regnal year of Parakesarivarman alias Virachola Irukkuval – seems to record a gift of land
  4. On the base of the mandapa in front of the central shrine31 – refers to a regnal year of the Chola king Rajakesarivarman, identified with Parantaka Sundara Chola II (957-970 CE) – refers to a dispute between certain individuals and a meeting of two nagaram of Kodumbalur was held to decide over the matter
  5. On the south wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine32 – refers to the sixth regnal year of the Chola king Kulothunga III, corresponding 1184 CE – mentions Se Udaiyan of Alankoyil in Kodumbai (Kodumbalur) repaired the tank with its steps, and set up images of Dakshinamurti, Tirumal (Vishnu), Ayan (Brahma) and two dvarapalas
  6. In the same place33 – refers to certain regnal year (lost) of the Chola king Kulothunga – records that Konattu-Pallavadaraiyan of Kodumbalur died in the strife at Periyakulam. A grant is made for a lamp to burn for his merit.
  7. On the wall to the north of the staircase of the central shrine34 – refers to the sixth (or sixteenth) regnal year of the Pandya king Maravarman Sundara Pandya I, as per the astronomical details the date should be Saturday, 8th May 1232 CE – mentions a gift made by a certain individual during Tiruvottasama-sandi in the temple of Tirumudukunramudaiya-Nayanar at Kodumbalur
  8. On the north wall of the mandapa35 – refers to certain regnal year of the Pandya king Maravarman Pandya I, as per the astronomical details the date comes to Sunday, 21st June, 1243 CE – mentions grant to restore tiruvottasama-sandi (midnight service) by a certain individual, a sivabrahman of the Tiruvagattichchuram temple at Karaiyur in Cholapandya-valanadu. The god is referred as Tirumudukunramudaiya Nayanar of Kodumbalur in Urattur-kurram, a subdivision of Kadaladaiyadilangai-konda-cholavala-nadu.
  9. On the north wall of the mandapa36 – the temple is referred as Tirumudukunramudaiya-Nayanar in Urattur-kurram in Vada-konadu
  10. On the south wall of the same mandapa37 – refers to some regnal year of the Pandya king Jatavarman Sundara Pandya – details not available
  11. On the north wall of the same mandapa38 – refers to some regnal year of the Pandya king Jatavarman Sundara Pandya – details not available
  12. On the south wall of the mandapa39 – dated in the seventeenth regnal year of the Pandya king Jatavarman Vira Pandya I, astronomical details dates it to Thursday 8th August, 1269 CE – records a land sale deed in auction to the temple of Tirumudukunramudaiya-Nayanat at Kodumbalur in Urattur-kurram, a subdivision of Konadu alias Kadaladaiyadilangaikonda-chola-valanadu by kaikkolamudalikal of the village.
  13. On the south wall of the mandapa40 – dated in the seventeenth regnal year of the Pandya kin Jatavarman Vira Pandya – the available portion mentions the temple of Tirumudukunramudaiya-Nayanat at Kodumbalur in Urattur-kurram, a subdivision of Konadu alias Kadaladaiyadilangaikonda-chola-valanadu
  14. On the north wall of the kitchen41 – dated in the fifth regnal year of the Pandya king Maravarman Tribhuvana Kulasekharadeva – mentions building of the kitchen by the nattavar pf udusolkudi-nadu. The temple is referred as Tirumudukunramudaiya-Nayanat at Kodumbalur in Urattur-kurram, a subdivision of Konadu alias Kadaladaiyadilangaikonda-chola-valanadu
  15. In the same place41 – dated in the forty-second regnal year of the Pandya king Maravarman Tribhuvana Kulasekharadeva – mentions that a piece of land, earlier endowed to the temple of Tirumudkunramudaiya-Nayanar, being unfit for cultivation was handed over to a certain individual to make it fit for cultivation while paying to the temple to carry out wishes of the original donor.
  16. On a second pillar in the mandapa42 – dated in fifth regnal year of a king whose name is lost – mentions a certain individual
  17. On a pillar in the mandapa43 – registers the gift for the pillar

 


References:
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2 Epigraphia Indica vol. XIII. pp 134-149
3 Epigraphia Indica vol. XVII. pp 291-309
4 South Indian Inscriptions vol. III
5 Raju, Venkataranga (1937). Cola Temples in Pudukkottai published in the Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art vol. V. pp 78-91
6 Epigraphia Indica vol. XXXII. pp 99-102
7 Balasubrahmanyam, S R (1971). Early Chola Temples. Orient Longman. New Delhi. p 128
8 Soundara Rajan, K V (1983). Irrukuvels of Kodumbalur published in Encyclopaedia of Indian Temple Architecture South India Lower Dravidadesa vol. I part I. American Institute of Indian Studies. New Delhi. pp 199-213
9 Sethuraman, N (1989). The Pandyar Varalaru. Chandra Printers. Kumbakonam.
10 Barrett, Douglas (1974). Early Cola Architecture and Sculpture 866-1014 AD. Faber and Faber Limited. London. ISBN 0571105076. p 31
10 Tipurantaka, Vinadhara Dakshinamurti or Kirata murti?
12 Barrett, Douglas (1974). Early Cola Architecture and Sculpture 866-1014 AD. Faber and Faber Limited. London. ISBN 0571105076. p 86
13 Artibus Asiae Vol. 39, No. 1 (1977). pp. 91-98
14 Dhaky, M A (1971). Cola Sculpture in Chhavi – Golden Jubilee Volume. Bharat Kala Bhavan. Varanasi. pp 263-289
15 Bhoothalingam, Mathuram (1969). Movement in Stone – A Study of some Chola Temples. Soumani Publications (P) Ltd. New Delhi. p 67
16 Sivaram, Rama (1994). Early Chola Art – Origin and Emergence of Style. Navrang. New Delhi. p 103
17 No 14 of Ayyar, K R Srinivasa (2002). Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State part I. Commissioner of Museums. Chennai. pp 15-18
18 No 104 of Ayyar, K R Srinivasa (2002). Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State part I. Commissioner of Museums. Chennai. p 83
19 Pk: 159 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
20 Pk: 160 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44/Soundara Rajan, K V (1975). Early Pandya, Muttarayar and Irukkuvel Architecture published in Studies in Indian Temple Architecture, Pramod Chandra (ed.). American Institute of Indian Studies. New Delhi. p 271
21 Pk: 161 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
22 Pk: 162 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
23 Pk: 163 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
24 Pk: 166 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
25 Venkatarama Ayyar, K R (1944). A Manual of the Pudukkottai State vol II part II. Sri Brihadamba State Press. Pudukkottai. p 1035
26 Barrett, Douglas (1974). Early Cola Architecture and Sculpture 866-1014 AD. Faber and Faber Limited. London. ISBN 0571105076. p 74
27 No 30 of Ayyar, K R Srinivasa (2002). Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State part I. Commissioner of Museums. Chennai. pp 27-29
28 No 33 of Ayyar, K R Srinivasa (2002). Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State part I. Commissioner of Museums. Chennai. p 30
29 Pk: 157 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
30 Pk: 158 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
31 No 82 of Ayyar, K R Srinivasa (2002). Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State part I. Commissioner of Museums. Chennai. p 51
32 No 144 of Ayyar, K R Srinivasa (2002). Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State part I. Commissioner of Museums. Chennai. p 119
33 No 233 of Ayyar, K R Srinivasa (2002). Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State part II. Commissioner of Museums. Chennai. pp 201-202
34 Pk: 170 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
35 Pk: 171 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
36 Pk: 172 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
37 Pk: 173 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
38 Pk: 174 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
39 Pk: 175 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
40 Pk: 176 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
41 Pk: 177 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
42 Pk: 178 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
43 Pk: 179 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44
44 Pk: 180 of Mahalingam, T V (1991). A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States vol VI. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi. pp 38-44

Web References:
1. Kodumbalur Chiefs in South Indian Inscriptions vol. 19
2. Kodumbalur inscriptions in South Indian Inscriptions vol. 23
3. Kalamukhas at Kodumbalur at Tamil Arts Academy

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