Between 1001 and 1500 CE, Karnataka, Vijayanagara

Hadavalli – Capital of Saluvas

Introduction – Hadavalli is a small village located in Uttara Kannada district. This small village is now reduced to a quiet and desolate place but in earlier times it was the second capital of the Saluva (Salva) dynasty and known as Sangitapura. On the basis of its name, Sangitapura, it might be assumed that it was immersed in the devotional songs and music during those times. It was an important Jain center, ruins of the temples are scattered around the village.

Bereft of its past glories, and reduced to a solemn village, Hadavalli can still boast of its magnificent scenic beauty which goes to its extreme during the monsoon season. The whole village gets under the cover of wild flowers, vines, creepers and moss.

There are two hillocks adjacent to the village, Chandragiri and Indragiri. Both were important Jain centers in the past. Ruins of dedicatory stone and temples are strewn over these hillocks. Indragiri has a stone carrying footprints of a Jina while Chandragiri has a basadi but no shrine attached to it.

Inscriptions

  1. Hero-stone standing in Mathada-Basadi – no 46 of the Annual Report of Indian Epigraphy 1939-40 – refers to the reign of the Vijayanagara king Bukkaraya – dated Saka 1345, corresponding 1423 CE – After paying tribute to Jinashasana, this slightly damaged record refers itself to the reign of the Vijayanagara king Bukkaraya-Odeya ruling over the whole empire and introduces the Mahamandaleshvara Sangiraya-Odeya of Haduvalli as the son of Madarasa-Odeya, and Keshava-Odeya as a promoter of the family of Mahamandaleshvara Haivaraja-Odeya, lord of Nagire, the best of towns. It appears from the succeeding lines that Haivarasa-Odeya described as Gandara-gova and Samanta-Narayana led an expedition probably, against Sangiraya-Odeya of Haduvalli, his forces being reinforced by an army led by Keshavadeva-Odeya and aliya Sangiraya-Odeya. In the battle that ensued, a hero named Isaranna-nayaka fell fighting bravely on the side of Sangiraya-Odeya, where upon Bommanayaka set up a stone to the memory of the hero. The stone was made by Isarachari, son of Keshava-achari, and Mani-achari son of Ramachari.
  2. Stone standing at Hire Basadi – no 49 of the Annual Report of Indian Epigraphy 1939-40 – dated Saka 1352, corresponding 1429 CE – The record begins with the praise of Jinashasana and invokes the blessings of Chandraprabha on Sangabhupa. After an elaborate description of Jambudvipa, it proceeds to describe Sangitapura- its high castle-walls, lofty buildings and pious monks Sangabhupa mentioned as son of Bhairalarani and Haivabhupa of Nagire is lauded for his benevolence to the needy and the suffering. His medical aid and spiritual guidance to the people are also eulogized. Haivarasa and Manga are stated to have been his sons. One day, Manikasena the preceptor of Sangabhupa, having approached the latter, is said to have intimated to him his decision to observe the sallekhana vow. The king respected his wish after a brief discussion, whereupon Manikasena vowed himself. In the bright half of the lunar month Jyeshtha of the cyclic year Saumya, thirty three days passed away without his touching food. The Jain monk’s struggle against the elements of life and his final triumph over them are acclaimed. On the Saka date specified the monk is said to have breathed his last with a perfect coolness of mind. Sangabhupa personally attended his burial ceremony and afterwards is stated to have set up this epitaph, after celebrating a “samudaya” of the whole town The record mentions at the close, the name of its inciser Isarachari, son of Keshavachari.
  3. Hero-stone standing in Mathada-Basadi – no 52 of the Annual Report of Indian Epigraphy 1939-40 – After invocation to Jina’s order the inscription which is badly damaged refers itself to the reign of Rajadhiraja-parameshvara Sri Virapratapa ( name lost ) and introduces his feudatory Mahapradhana Virupanna-Odeya, as ruling from his capital, Barakanyapura. It states that when Virupanna-Odeya had encamped at Bayidura with his servants residing at the hattukeri of Barakura, Mahamandalesvara Sangiraya of Haduvalli opposed him with his warriors. No further information can be made out as the writing is badly obliterated. It seems that Kotiyanna was the deceased hero in the fight. Mabannayaka and Bankinayaka set up this stone to his memory. The sculptor of the hero-stone was Maniyachari, son of Yisarachari.
  4. Front face of the bronze hollow block of the Manastamhha from Hire-Basti, now in the Kannada Research Museum – dated Saka 1407, corresponding 1484 CE – The inscription opens abruptly and begins to describe the pious deeds of the king Salvindra. It states that Salvindra-Kshitipa granted to the Chandranatha-griha a number of prabhavalis, a cluster of bells, a good deal of wealth and a number of servants and lands for conducting service in the temple. He is said to have made four kinds of gifts to the (representatives of) four castes. He is introduced, as a bee on the lotus feet of Paramaguru Panditarya and as ruling the earth by punishing the wicked and rescuing the righteous. He is said to have constructed the temple of Chandraprabha-Tirthankara at Haduvalli and set up in front, the bronze manastamhha on the date specified. The record was composed by Ubhayakavi Sankararya son of Sri-Gopana.

Monuments – There are few Jain temples in the village, only Chandranatha Basadi is of interest.

Chandranatha Basadi

North-west view

Chandranatha Basadi – This small structure is consisted of a garbha-grha, antarala, mandapa and a porch. Slanted roof of the mandapa is supported on twenty-four pillars. Antarala doorway is carved with many shakhas. On its lintel is a Jina. Garbha-grha has a black stone image of Chandranatha.

Mandapa

Chandranatha

There are two subsidiary shrines in this complex. Both are located opposite to each other and constructed in laterite stone.

How to Reach – Hadavalli is situated at a distance of 145 km from its district center Karwar, 16 km from Bhatkal & 69 km from the world famous Jog Falls. The nearest railway station is Bhatkal.

References

  1. Cousens, Henry (1926).The Chalukyan Architecture of the Kanarese Districts. Archaeological Survey of India. New Delhi.
  2. Kamath, Suryanath U (1985). Uttara Kannada District Gazetteer. Karnataka Government Press.