Bagali – A Town in Oblivion

Introduction – Bagali is a small village in Davanagere district of Karnataka. Though currently reduced to a small hamlet, Bagali boasts of a very rich and luxurious past. And, it is seemingly hard to understand that why such a village, which was a center of attraction for almost about six centuries, lost its glory and went into oblivion. Bagali narrates its story in its fifty odd inscriptions, spanning across six centuries and four great dynasties.

In its inscriptions, the village is referred as Baluguli, Balguli, Baguli or Balagali. It seems to fall under the Kogali-500 region. The earliest inscription refers to the Rashtakuta rule and dated in early ninth century CE. It is evident that the region was ruled by the Chalukya chiefs under the Rashtrakuta lords. This was the period when the Badami Chalukyas were ousted by the Rasthrakutas and they installed their chiefs to rule their recently added country.

By the end of the ninth century, the Rashtrakutas were at their decline and we saw emergence of the Western Chalukyas. The earliest Western Chalukya inscription at Bagali is dated in 987 CE and refers to the reign of king Tailapa II. The same inscription mentions a grant made to god Adityadeva concreted by Duggimayya. This was the time when the Rashtrakuta chiefs still continue ruling the land but as a subordinates to the Western Chalukyas.

Though the Western Chalukyas ruled the land till the end of the twelfth century, Bagali was under various chiefs under their rule. At the start of the eleventh century, we find Nolamba-Pallava ruling over Bagali which was part of their Gangavadi-96000 territory. By the last quarter of the same century, when Vikramaditya VI came to the Western Chalukya throne, Bagali came under his subordinate Pandya chiefs. Now Bagali became part of Nolambavadi-32000 territory. This period under the Western Chalukyas was the most glorious and inundated with many grants towards religious works.

By the end of the twelfth century, in its last decade, the Hoysalas emerges on the scene with Vira-Ballala II taking control over the region. By the mid-sixteenth century CE, VIjayanagara rule came into effect and we find few grants from this period. By this time, Bagali had already lost its sheen and that brings down the curtain on its glorious past.

Monuments – There are two main temples in the village, Channa-Basava and Kalleshvara temple. The current article talks about the latter.

Kalleshvara Temple (source – wikipedia)
Kalleshvara Temple Complex

Kalleshvara Temple – This temple is built close to the embankment of a huge old tank. This tank seems to be same referred in the earliest inscription of the town, dated first quarter of the tenth century CE. The temple faces east and is consisted of a garbhagriha (sanctum), sukanasi (vestibule), a closed mandapa (hall) and an open mandapa. The temple is constructed in two phase, phase one comprises of the garbhagriha, sukanasi and closed mandapa and the phase two consisted of the open mandapa and few additional shrines.

Antarala
Antarala doorway lintel
Antarala Makara-torana

Grabhagriha is simple square with a natural linga inside. In few inscriptions, the lings is referred as svyambhu linga. The god is referred as Kalideva or Kalinatha. The antarala doorway is rich and much decorated. It has Gaja-Lakshmi on lalata-bimba while above the lintel is the Hindu Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Above them is a chadhya, over which is an elaborate makara-torana forming five loops. In these five loops, on terminals are Brahma and Vishnu in yogasana mudra, while the middle three has Shiva dancing on Andhaka, Shiva dancing on Gajasura and Shiva dancing in chatura-tandava. On the door jambs, at bottom, are the four sets of Shiva dvarpalas.

Closed mandapa
Southern doorway of closed mandapa

The closed mandapa is coeval with the phase one of the temple construction. It has two doorways, however the door frames seem to be later addition as suggested by Foekema. Its eastern doorway connects to the open mandapa. Its four central pillars have heavy appearance and bereft of any decoration. The open mandapa is of phase two construction and is one of the largest mandapa among the Chalukya creations. It has 37 bays in total. On one end, it connects to the closed mandapa and on the other to the Narasimha temple.

Open Mandapa
Sarasvati
Darpana-Sundari

The main feature of this open mandapa is its variety of pillars, we find twelve different varieties here, round, square, 6-sided star, 8-sided star, 12-sided star, 16-sided star to name a few. Its four central pillars are heavily decorated, carved with exquisite sculptures on their square bases. We find here Saravati, Ganesha, Ugra-narasimha, Bhairavi and Shiva. The central ceiling is decorated with ashta-dikpala, the guardians of eight directions. The middle bracket of the ceiling is missing, which might have an image of Shiva form.

Ugra-Narasimha

On its north, this open mandapa is connected to a shrine dedicated to Narasimha. This is a simple shrine comprises of a garbhagriha, sukanasi and a portico. This shrine is coeval with the open mandapa, both belonging to the second phase of the construction. This shrine faces south. Opposite to the eastern entrance of the temple, but exactly aligned with the main axis, stands a separate shrine dedicated to Surya. With the main temple dedicated to Shiva, an attached shrine dedicated to Vishnu as Narasimha and another shrine dedicated to Surya, the whole arrangement fits to be a trikuta temple.

Narasimha shrine
Ugra-Narasimha

There may be possibility that the Surya shrine be the oldest among all, as an inscription found here (number 7 of this article) dated 987 CE, mentions consecration of lord Adityadeva which probably is the same god enshrined in this shrine. Duggimayya was said to be responsible for consecration of lord Adityadeva.

The first phase of the temple construction can be assigned to early tenth century CE during the Rashtrakuta rule. The phase two would have been during the Western Chalukya period which resulted in addition of the open mandapa and Narasimha shrine. The earliest reference of god Kalideva is found in an inscription (no 9 of this article) dated 1018 CE while that of Narasimha comes in an inscription dated 1031 CE (no 12 of this article).

Erotic Sculptures

Few blogs and scholars have tried to term and compare this temple with the temples at Khajuraho because of the presence of few erotic sculptures. However this comparison is very incorrect. First there are not many erotic sculptures at this temple and second, the execution and style of these images are far inferior than those at Khajuraho temples in aesthesis and workmanship.

Inscriptions – Fifty-three inscriptions are found from the Kalleshvara Temple complex and many others are found in the other temples and places of the village.

  1. On a slab set up on the west side of a ruined temple close to the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 59 – undated record, can be dated to early tenth century – refers to the reign of the Rashtrakuta king Indra III (914-929 CE) – The kings is said to bore the title ‘Ratta-Kandarpa’, while his feudatory bearing the title Birudara-Rotta. The latter was ruling over Kogali-500 and Masiyavadi-140 as a Samanta, and made a gift of budagul to Baliyara Badamma, with the consent of the Mahajanas of Baluguli. Badamma is stated to have made over the gift to the tank.
  2. On the third slab set up on the west side of a ruined temple close to the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscription  vol IX, no 64 – dated Saka 868, corresponding to 946 CE – refers to the reign of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III – mentions that mahasamanta Katyera of the Chalukya family was ruling over Kogali-500 and Masiyavadi-140 and Dovayya was the Pergade. A certain Ajavarma is said to have received a gift for the village Oddavadangila.
  3. On the sixteenth slab set up on the south side of the kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 66 – dated Saka 878, corresponding to 956 CE – refers itself to the reign of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III – The king’s mahasamanta Rottayya ruling over Masivadi-140, Kogali-500 and Kukkanur-30, made a grant of the whole of the revenue raised from Babandi to Pasupatibhatta, the Urodeya of Balguli.  Another chief named Dhorapayya is also said to have made some gift.  As the inscription is damaged, the nature of the gift cannot be made out.
  4. On a slab set up on the south-west corner of Kalleshvara temple – Inscriptions of Bellary district, no 313 – dated in 985 CE – written in Kannada script – the sculpture at the top of the stone seem to represent a battle
  5. On a slab set up on the north side of a ruined shrine close to the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions  vol IX, no 71 – dated Saka 894, corresponding to 972 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Rashtrakuta king Khottiga Amoghavarsha – mentions his feudatory Permanadi of the Ganga dynasty.  It records the gift of some land to a matha and mentions the Jaina teacher [Ma]hendradeva-Pandita.
  6. On a slab set up in the south-west corner of the Kallesvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol XVII, no 118 – dated in Saka 907, corresponding to 986 CE – It seems to record a gift of income from levies to Bacha by the One-hundred and twenty mahajanas of Sindamuge in appreciation of his heroism in an attack by Kaliga and others.  It further records the conferring of the title Irmmadi-gadamba to Manneyara Ballaha for having killed Kaliga.
  7. On the third slab set up on the north side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 75 – dated Saka 909, corresponding to 987 CE – refers to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Tailapa II – mentions that while his mahasamanta Aytavarma was ruling Kisukalu-70 and Kogali-500, the fifty (Mahajanas) of Balguli made a gift of a garden for the service of the god Adityadeva consecrated by Duggimayya.
  8. On the seventeenth slab set up on the north side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 76 – dated in Saka 913, corresponding to 991 CE – It states that, at the five-hundred, the Western Chalukya king Tailapa II – mentions and confirms the toll contribution on beetle leaves formerly fixed by the illustrious Kannaradeva (of the Rashtrakuta family). Adityavarmarasa is said to have been ruling Kogali-500. The fifty and the thousand are also said to have made a gift of some tolls to a certain Barik-Echa. Chandoja engraved this.
  9. On the third slab set up on in the mandapa in the front of Narasimhasvami shrine in Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 80 – dated in Saka 940, corresponding to 1018 CE – It belongs to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Jayasimha II – mentions his feudatory Jagadekamalla-Nolambapallava-Permanadi alias Udayadityadeva is stated to have been ruling over Gangavadi-96000, Kadambalike-1000, Kogali-500, five villages of Masiyavadi-140, Ballakunde-300 and Kudihara-70, in Edadore-2000. It records that, under the orders of Udayaditya, the Pergade Narasinghayya went to Balguli and, washing the feet of Somasingha-Bhalara in the presence of the Mahajanas of Balguli, Bikki, the Manneya of Bikiga-70 and Birabhatta, made a grant of some plots of land for offerings to the god Kalidevasvami, for the maintenance of the Devadasis and their band, for servants and for the feeding of teachers and students.  Narasinghayya is praised for his bravery.  The gift was made on the occasion of Udayaditya’s visit to the tirtha of Pampapura.  The king is stated to have been ruling from Kampuli.
  10. On the sixth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 81 – The contents of the record are the same as above one.
  11. On a pillar in the mandapa in front of the Narasimhasvamin shrine in the Kallesvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol XVII, no 91 – dated in the cyclic year Nandana, Magha, su. 10, Sunday.  The record is in characters of about the 11th century CE. It registers a gift of land to Puranada Vishnubhatta by the fifty mahajanas of Baguli which bears the appellation Harischandradatti.
  12. On pillar in the mandapa in front of the Narasimhasvamin shrine in the Kallesvara temple  – South Indian Inscriptions vol XVII, no 93 – dated in 1031 CE –  It registers a gift of land for offerings to god Narasimhadeva, in the temple, of Kalideva, by the fifty mahajanas  of agrahara Baguli called by the appellation Harischandradatti.
  13. On a pillar in the mandapa in front of the Narasimhasvamin shrine in the Kallesvara temple  – South Indian Inscriptions vol XVII, no 92 – dated in 1032 CE on paleographic and day provided in the inscription – It registers a gift of land to the god Narasimhadeva of Vithapura by the fifty mahajanas of the agrahara  Baguli called Harischandradalli.
  14. On the ninth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 89 – dated in Saka 957, corresponding to 1035 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Jayasimha II – records that the fifty (Mahajanas) and others of Balguli having assembled in the temple settled to collect grains and salt at the rate of 2 ballas out of the quantity worth a ponnu  in each kind and invested 103 gadyanas realised from the sale of the collection, to conduct a feeding house for four persons every day.  It also records another gift made by the songstress Siri[ya]ve, daughter of Kamave-Nagave and a devotee of the god Kalideva, of her house to the god with the condition that those who live in the house shall pay 2 panas  per year for keeping a perpetual lamp before the god.
  15. On a slab set up on the north side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 108 – dated in Saka 971 corresponding to 1049 CE – The record refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Someshvara I – Mahasamantadhipath (name lost), who was ruling over Paliyanda-4000, is stated to have made gift of 12 mattars of land.
  16. On a pillar in the mandapa  in front of the Narasimhasvamin shrine in the Kallesvara temple  – South Indian Inscriptions vol XVII, no 94 – dated in 1065 CE – It registers a gift of lands to god Sadasivadeva, by Sadasiva, son of Gopanna, Gomena Vitthanna, Parimitana Nachanna, and Kolagada Chavulayya, of the village Baguli, a Harischandradatti.  The gift was made into the hands of the fifty mahajanas of the village.
  17. On a slab set up on the south-west side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 132 – dated in Saka 990, corresponding to 1068 CE – it refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Somesvara II – While his feudatory Trailokyamalla-Nolamba-Pallava-Permadi Jayasingadeva was ruling over Kogali-500, Kadambalige-1000 and Ballakunde-300, a certain Mahadevayya purchased for 52 gadyanas the quantity of lease produce that the Sudras had to pay to cultivate the fields of Brahmans and made a gift of it to the tank, fixing the price at the rate of panas 3 for a visa per annum. The Mahajanas made a gift of taxes on barbers to him.
  18. On a slab set up on the right side of the southern entrance to the central shrine of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 144 – dated probably to 1079 CE as per the given tithi – it refers to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI –  A certain Nagekalayya is said to have granted some land to the Majajanas.
  19. On another slab set up on the south side of Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 145 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year, corresponds to 1079 CE – The inscription refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – mentions his feudatory Pandyadeva is statted to have been ruling over Nolambavadi-32000. It records that, in the presence of the learned Mahajanas of the village Baguli, Bachaladevi, daughter Kaliyama-Gauda of Arasiyakere and wife of Piriyada-Pergade, made a gift of land for the service of god Kalideva of the village. Piriyada-Pergade also made a grant of money and a portion of toll-revenue.
  20. On a slab set up to the south of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 168 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 28, corresponding to 1103 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – mentions his dandanayaka, Muddarasa, is said to have made a gift of the toll-revenue on two loads of  beetle leaves per year for the service of the god Kalideva, after washing the feet of Sivasakti-Pandita, in the presence of the Mahajanas of Balguli. Out of the 12 panas thus granted 2 panas were given to the reader of the Puranas.
  21. On the eleventh slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 173 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 32, corresponding to 1107 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – mention dandanayaka Barmmarasa to have granted one gadyana per month out of the pannaya of the village Balguli to the Mahajanas for the repairs of the tank Hiriyakere, in the presence of the god Kalideva.
  22. On the above slabSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 174 – It is not dated but is engraved in characters similar to those of no 173 above and in its continuation – This records the gift of the vritti lands granted by Mahadevi, wife of a certain Nadeva-Ghaissa for the service of the god Vira-Kesavadeva.
  23. On the tenth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions, no 177 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 33, corresponding to 1108 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – mentions his feudatory Tribhuvanamalla-Pandyadeva is stated to have been ruling Nolambavadi-32000.  Maleyala-Vaddabevahari Komara-Murka is stated to have made a gift of gadyanas for the service of the god Svyambhu-Kalideva out of the interest accruing from the sum.
  24. On a slab set up inside the Male-Mallapa templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 178 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 33, corresponding to 1108 CE – It mentions mahamandalesvara Tribhuvanamalla-vira-Pandyadeva ruling over Nolambavadi-32000. Vijaya-Pandyadeva and the Mahapasayita Vijaya-Hemmadi-Dandanayaka. It records that Kappisetti, Honnabachayya, the Senabova Padmana, Sarvadeva-Nayaka, Mahanna, the Senabova Sankanna and others made gifts of various plots of land for the service of the god Divyalinga-Nilesvara.
  25. On a slab set up inside the Male-Mallappa templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX no 182 – dated in the 8th year of the Mahamandalesvara Vijaya-Pandyadeva Vikrita, corresponding probably to 1110 CE – a gift of 40 kammas of garden land for the service of god Nilesvara, after washing the feet of [Na]garasi-Pandita.
  26. On another slab set up on the west side of a ruined shrine close to Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 189 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 37, corresponding to 1113 CE – The record refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – mentions his feudatory Tribhuvanamalla-Pandyadeva as ruling over Nolambavadi-32000.  The Mahamaleyala-Vaddvyavahari Ponmurkhasetti is stated to have washed the feet of the Saiva teacher Sivasakti-Pandita and granted, in the presence of the Mahajanas of Balguli, gadyanas 14 for burning a perpetual lamp before the god Kalideva.
  27. On the fifth slab set up in the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 191 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 39, corresponding to 1115 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – states that while his feudatory, the Mahamandalesvara Tribhuvanamalla-Pandyadeva was ruling over Nolambavadi-32000, Isvarayyana-Machakka of the village Yelekala made a gift of gadyanas 20 for the service of the god Kalidevasvami, after washing the feet of the teacher Sivasakti-Pandita. The gift was made in the presence of the Mahajanas of Balguli.
  28. On the fourteenth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 192 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 39, corresponding to 1115 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – states, that, while Tribhuvanamalla-Pandyadeva was ruling over Nolambavadi-32000 the Dandanayaka Tikkabhatta made a gift of the toll-revenue at the rate of two hagas on every load of merchandise instead of one haga as before, for feeding five Brahmans in the satra every day, the balance, if any, being utilized for the repairs of the tank. Besides this, a grant of two panas per month, for offerings in the Brahma-Jinalaya, was made in the presence of Sivasakti-Pandita. The gift was made into the hands of Sivamayya. It also registers another gift made in Saka 1020, Isvara, Ashadha, amavasye Brihaspativara, Surya-grahana. The date is irregular in many respects. The donor was the same Tikanayya-Dandanayaka. He is said to have made a gift of 200 kammas of wet land for the service of the god Virakesavadeva; and the Mahajanas of village made a gift of a garden of 60 kammas to the Purana-reader Isvara-bhattopadhyaya.  Evidently this gift was recorded subsequently.
  29. On a slab set up on the north side of the Male-Mallappa templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 198 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 44, corresponding to 1119 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – mentions his feudatory Tribhuvanamalla-Pandyadeva was governing Nolambavadi-32000. Under the orders of the Mahapradhana Mahadevarasa, the Mahamatya and Dandanayaka Rishiyannabhatta is said to have made a gift of toll-revenue for the service of the god Nilesvaradeva, after washing the feet of Nilesvara-Pandita, son of Devasingajiya.  The Mahajanas of the village contributed one pana every month for a lamp, besides some land.  The Pergade Kavaraja is also said to have made a gift of one gadyana out of the two gadyanas which the Mahajanas used to pay him as a present on every Dipavali day, for the service of the same god.
  30. On the fifteenth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 201 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 46, corresponding to 1122 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – the dandanayaka Sovrasa, chief of Bannigola, made a gift of a portion of toll-revenue for the service of the god Kalideva, while Tribhuvanamalla-Pandyadeva was ruling over Nolambavadi-32000.
  31. On the fourth slab set up in the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX no 203 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 47, corresponding to 1123 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – Tribhuvanamalla-Pandyadeva was ruling over Nolambavadi-32000. With the consent of the Mahajanas of the village Balguli, Dasayya-Nayaka, son of Martandayya of the Vasishtha-gotra, is said to have made a gift of  3  mattars and 300 kammas of land for a khandika.
  32. On the thirteenth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX no 211 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 51, corresponding to 1126 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI –  feudatory Tribhuvanamalla-Pandyadeva was ruling over Nolambavadi-32000. A certain Gujjara-Santikabbe of Vishnuvriddha-gotra is said to have made a gift of a garden for the service of the god Kalideva and of a house for the residence of the Purana-reader, after washing the feet of Sivasakti-Pandita, in the presence of the Mahajanas of Balguli.
  33. On the sixth slab set up in the ruined temple close to the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 219 – This is damaged and the date is lost. It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI – states that, while his feudatory Tribhuvanamalla-Pandyadeva was ruling over Nolamabavadi-32000, the general Kalimayya granted some land to a satra for feeding Brahmans.
  34. On the fifth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 246 – dated in the 10th year of the Western Chalukya king Jagadekamalladeva II, which coresponded to 1147 CE – The record states that Somanna, son of Kalimayya of Visvamitra-gotra made a grant of land for the service of the god Kalideva the Characters belong to period much later than the one to which the record refers itself.
  35. On the eighth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 255 – dated in the eleventh year of the Western Chalukya king Jagadhekamalladeva II, which  corresponds to 1148 CE – It states that while the Mahamandalesvara Jagadekamalla-Virapandyadeva was ruling over Nolambavadi-32000,  a certain Bhattara Madiyanna granted some plots of land for payment to 7 Brahmans engaged in conducting the worship of the god Kalideva and for offering etc. to the god.
  36. On the fourth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 258 – dated in Chalukya-Vikrama year 16, corresponding to 1153 CE – The record states that Vikramadityarasa, uncle of Jagadekamall-Vira-Pandyadeva, gave to the Brahman Mahajanas of Baguli gadyanas, with the stipulation that with the interest thereon 13 Brahmans of the temple of Kalideva should be given provisions and 2 lamps should be burnt before the gods Kalideva and narasimhadeva.  The gift was made for the merit of Sovaladevi, Vikramadityarasa and his wife Nagiyandeyarasi.
  37. On a slab set up on the mandapa in front of the central shrine of the Suryanarayana templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 267 – dated in Saka 1082, corresponding to 1160 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Jagadhekamalla III – mention his feudatory Vira-Pandyadeva as ruling over Kadamalige- 1000, Ballakunda-300 and Kogali-500. In the presence of the fifty (Mahajanas) of Balguli, Dharmavve, wife of the Brahman general Chiddana, who was the son of the brave general Malapayya, and the daughter of Padmanabha, who was the son of the Brahman Dharmeya-Shadangi of Kasyapa-gotra, is said to have made a grant of land for the worship of the god Lakshminarayanadeva set up by herself in Baguli, for the pay of the sastra teacher and of a Purana reader and for the subsistence of the priests employed in the temple.  Dharmavve is praised for her learning and character.  Here it may be noted that the record refers itself to the reign of Jagadekamalla II, though it is known that his successor began to rule in A.d. 1150.
  38. On a slab set up on the mandapa in front of the central shrine of the Chennakesvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 260 – This is damaged and not dated. It refers itself to the reign of the Western Chalukya king Jagadekamalladeva, probably the second of that name, and mentions his feudatory, .. . . .  Pandyadeva ruling over Nolambavadi-32000, the learned and warlike Mahajanas of Baguli and a certain Vatsa-chamupa. It registers the grant of six honnus to the reader of the Puranas and four honnus to the reciter of the Aindra hymns out of the interest of gadyanas 50.
  39. On the seventh slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 292 – This is damaged and not dated. It belongs to the reign of the Pandya chief Vijaya-Pandyadeva, whose genealogy is given in Sanskrit verse. Some Samanta whose name is lost is also mentioned.  Since Vijaya-Pandyadeva’s elder brother Vira-Pandya was a subordinate of Jagadhekamalla II, this record may belong to the Chalukya period.
  40. On a slab set up in front of the Narasimhaswami shrine in the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 274 – dated in Saka 1103, corresponding 1180 CE – It records a gift of 400 kammas of land.
  41. On the fifteenth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 281 – dated in Saka 1111, corresponding to 1188 CE – the Mahajanas of Balguli are stated to have made a grant of one mattar of wet land for the repairs of Daseya-Nayaka’s tank.
  42. On the sixth slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 319 – dated in Saka 1116, corresponding to 1193 CE – It refers itself to the reign of the Hoysala king Vira-Ballala II – The king is said to have made a gift of a large tract of land when he was in the nelevidu of Balguli, for the service of the god Svayambhu-Kalideva of the place, after washing the feet of the five hundred Mahajanas.  The king’s genealogy is given.
  43. On a slab set up on the west side of the ruined shrine close to the mandapa in the Kallesvara temple South Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 712 – dated in Saka 1131, corresponding to 1209 CE – It records the consecration of the god Suparnavegamritesvaradeva and the grant of some wet land for the service of the god by Suparnavegamrita-Pattavardhana-Dikshita-Somayajya as well as the consecration of the god Mallikarjunadeva and the grant of some land for the service of this god by a certain Chamanna, son of Hayanna.
  44. On the sixth slab on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 331 – dated 1212 CE – The Mahamandalesvara Virajagadala Bammidevarasa, son of Hariharadeva and grandson of Nachideva of Kotturu, is said to have made a gift of large tract of land for the service of the god Kalidevasvami. The gift was made in the presence of his teacher Somayajya-Hiriyanna of Arasiyabidu.
  45. On a pillar in front of the central shrine of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 344  – earliest date is 1228 CE – This is a composite record registering various gifts made at different periods. The first is dated in the reign of the Hoysala king Vira-Narasimha II in 1228 CE. A certain Bommayya-Dannayaka is stated to have made a gift of some land for the service of the god Kalideva of Baguli. The second is dated in 1287 CE when the fifty (Mahajanas) of Baguli are stated to have made a gift of land for the service of the god Bidirahalli–Svamideva. In the third, some land is said to have been granted to Vishnughaisar of Gorur in Khara, in 1291 CE. In the fourth a certain Heggade (name lost) is said to hve granted a portion of the toll-revenue for the service of the good Kalinatha on a solar eclipse, probaly in 1332 CE. In the fifth, merchants of various countries are said to have granted one tara of betel-leaves out of every nade for the service of th same god in Nandana, probably in 1292 CE. In the sixth, the Brahmans are stated to have been exempted from samya ….. and vrittivyahara probably in 1287 CE. The seventh records a gift in Khara, date not verifiable.
  46. On the third pillar in front of the Narasimhaswami shrine in the Kalleshvara temple – South Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 368 – dated in the 5th year of the reign of the Yadava king Kandharadeva, corresponding to 1250 CE – It registers the gift of Singanahalu to the Mahajanas of Baguli by  Jannamarasa under the orders Chavudisetti.
  47. On a slab set up on the north side of the Male-Mallappa templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 351 – dated in the year nandana, Kartika in the reign of the Hoysala king Vira-Narasimha III which corresponds to 1292 CE – The heggade Chandayya, son of Bettiya-nayaka, who was the Harekara of Moguvada-Macharasa made a gift of some garden land for the service of the god Nilesvaradeva.
  48. On a slab set up at the entrance to the Virabhadra temple – South Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 622 – dated in Saka 1468, corresponding to 1547 CE – The inscription refers itself to the reign of the Vijayanagara king Sadasiva-raya ruling at Vidyanagara and records that Timmoja, Kondoja, Bhadroja and other barbers in the service of the crown were exempted from kanike, kaddaya, bitti, birada and other taxes. It also registers a similar exemption granted to the barbers to Baguli in Kottura-sime.
  49. On a slab set up on the left side of the entrance to the Kallesvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 640 – dated in Saka 1472, corresponding to 1550 CE – It refers to the reign of the Vijayanagara king Sadasiva-raya ruling at Vidyanagari. It records that while Krishnappa-Nayaka, son of Hadapada Bayyapa-Nayaka, was ruling over Kotturu in Kogali district, and the thirty-two-thousand  province, and Halavi-Nayaka was ruling over Baguli in the Kottura-valita, Lingamma, wife of Lakkisetti, the pattanasvami of Balguli, made a gift of paddy and gold for the service of the god Kalideva with the prayer that her son Lingayya may prosper.  The gift was made into the hands of Devarasijiya, the head of the temple.
  50. On a slab set up on the south side of the Kalleshvara templeSouth Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 641 – dated in Saka 1472, corresponding to 1551 CE – it refers to the reign of the Vijayanagara king Sadasiva-raya ruling at Vidyanagara. It records that Helavi-Nayaka, son of Chami-Nayka of Baguli, in the sub-division of Kotura-sime  which had been granted to Hadapada-Krishnappa-Nayaka, exempted the shepherds of Baguli and its hamlets from tax on their sheep.  Kotura-sime is stated to have been situated in Kogali-venthe which was a sub-division of Pandya-nadu.
  51. On a slab set up on the right side of the southern entrance to the central shrine of the Kallesvara temple South Indian Inscriptions vol IX, no 710 – This is dated in the cyclic year Hemalambi, Jyeshtha, ba. 8, Budhavara, which is not verifiable. The Mahajanas of Baguli are stated to have granted some land free of taxes to a certain Chika-Gauda.
  52. On two faces of a pillar in the mandapa in front of the Narasimha shrine in Kalleshvara temple – Inscriptions of Bellary District, no 288 – not dated – records a grant of land to the temple of Narasimhadeva in Vithalapura.
  53. On another pillar in the mandapa in front of Narasimha shrine in Kalleshvara temple – Inscriptions of Bellary District, no 289 – not dated – written in Kannada script – records gift of land to the temple of Sadashivadeva by private individuals.

How to Reach – Bagali is located 8 km from Harapanahalli on SH131 (Shimoga-Harihar-Hospet road). Hospet is the nearest railway head. Harapanahalli is well connected with bus services from other nearby major towns Harihar, Hospet and Davanagere.

References:

  1. Abhishankar, K (1972). Bellary District Gazetteer. Karnataka Government. Bangalore.
  2. Hardy, Adam (1995). Indian Temple Architecture: Forms and Transformation. IGNCA. New Delhi. ISBN 8170173124
  3. Rea, Alexander (1896). Chalukyan Architecture. Archaeological Survey of India. New Delhi.
  4. Patil, Channabasappa S (1992). Temples of Raichur and Bellary Districts. Directorate of Archaeology and Museums. Mysore.
  5. Patil, Channabasappa S (1997). Inscriptions of Bellary District. Directorate of Archaeology and Museums. Mysore.
  6. Kamiya, Takeo (1996). Architecture of Indian Subcontinent. Om Books. ISBN 9784887061415.
  7. Sewell, Robert (1882). List of Antiquarian Remains in the Presidency of Madras. Archaeological Survey of India. New Delhi.
  8. Shivananda, V (1995). The Dating of Kallesvara Temple at Bagali: A Reconsideration, published in Sri Nagabhinandanam. Dr M S Nagaraja Rao Felicitation Committee. Bangalore.